(in reverse chronological order)
(Information provided courtesy of the UH Marine Option Program, NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries and/or MAHHI)


29th Symposium, 2018, Abstracts
28th Symposium, 2017, Abstracts
27th Symposium, 2016, Abstracts
26th Annual Symposium, 2015, Abstracts
25th Annual Symposium, 2014
24th Annual Symposium, 2013, Abstracts
23rd Annual Symposium, 2012, Abstracts
22nd Annual Symposium, 2011, Abstracts
21st Annual Symposium, 2010, Abstracts

20th Annual Symposium, 2009, Abstracts
19th Annual Symposium, 2008, Abstracts
18th Annual Symposium, 2007, Abstracts
17th Annual Symposium, 2006, Abstracts
16th Annual Symposium, 2005, Abstracts
15th Annual Symposium, 2004, Abstracts

14th Annual Symposium, 2002, Abstracts
13th Annual Symposium, 2001, Abstracts
12th Annual Symposium, 2000, Abstracts
11th Annual Symposium, 1999, Abstracts
10th Annual Symposium, 1998, Abstracts
9th Annual Symposium, 1997, Abstracts
8th Annual Symposium, 1996, Abstracts
7th Annual Symposium, 1995, Abstracts
6th Annual Symposium, 1994, Presentations
5th Annual Symposium, 1993, Presentations
4th Annual Symposium, 1992, Presentations
3rd Annual Symposium, 1991, Presentations
2nd Annual Symposium, 1990, Presentations
1st Annual Symposium, 1989, Presentations


29th Symposium, 2018, February 17-19, 2018
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

William N. Still Jr., History Professor/Program Director Emeritus, East Carolina University
Author of Crisis at Sea: The United States Navy in European Waters in World War I (2007)

Crisis at Sea is the first comprehensive history of the United States Navy in European waters during World War I. Drawing on vast American, British, German, French, and Italian sources, the author presents the U.S. Naval experience as America moved into the modern age of naval warfare. The book reveals penetrating insights into the United States’ relations in the world, the nation’s unpreparedness for such a war, the limits imposed on the Navy by the cabinet, and the unexpected conclusion to the war. Much of the author’s exhaustive research is new, such as the use of French official documents and British recollections of the American ships and sailors. This book will be the standard reference volume for libraries and serious scholars with a special interest in World War I and in the history of warfare. Dr. Still will include topics from the sequel to Crisis at Sea, his volume title Victory without Peace, which discusses the navy's involvement with the Treaty of Versailles and efforts to preserve peace after the war.

Hans Van Tilburg, NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, Hans.Vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

Following her participation in the Spanish American War in 1898, the pre-Dreadnought protected cruiser USS Baltimore played a specific role in World War I. In 1914, USS Baltimore was converted to a minelayer (CM-1), specifically designed for experimental work with mines, release systems, and floating copper antennas. On March 1st 1918 the USS Baltimore was sent across the Atlantic at the urgent request of the British Admiralty. The first American minelayer to arrive in British waters, USS Baltimore participated in laying the Northern Mine Barrage, a huge series of over 73,000 Mk-6 antenna mines in fields stretching from the Orkney Islands to Norway. The objective was to protect the shipping lanes by blocking the movement of U-boats from bases in Germany. The ultimate effect of this barrage was uncertain, as it was only completed at the very end of the war. Following World War I, the USS Baltimore was sent to Pearl Harbor in 1921, and placed out of commission September 15th 1922. Following unknown additional salvage, the local Seabee battalion towed her to sea and set off three dynamite charges within her hull on September 22nd 1944... sinking the 56-year old hulk, “Stripped of all but glory achieved in faithful service to the United States Navy…” NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and Research conducted a live ROV survey of the USS Baltimore wreck on September 29, 2017.

Gerry Condon, Veterans for Peace, gerrycondon[at]veteransforpeace.org

In January 1958, Albert Bigelow, a retired Navy commander, and three other Quaker peace activists attempted to sail the 32-foot ketch, the Golden Rule, from California into the Marshall Islands, to interfere with U.S. nuclear bomb testing in the atmosphere. While on a stopover in Honolulu, a U.S. federal court issued an injunction barring the voyage of the Golden Rule from entering into the nuclear test sites. Despite the injunction, the four crew members made two attempts to leave Honolulu for the Marshall Islands. Both times they were stopped by the U.S. Coast Guard and then arrested, tried, convicted and given sixty-day prison sentences (the rule they were convicted of violating was later found to be an unconstitutional restriction of the freedom of the seas). Fifty-two years later, the Golden Rule was found sunken in Humboldt Bay in northern California. When her historical significance was discovered, local members of Veterans For Peace, Quakers and boat lovers decided to restore the Golden Rule to her original glory and to resume her mission, sailing for a nuclear-free world. It took five years and thousands of volunteer hours, but it was a labor of love, and a very successful one. The Golden Rule was re-launched in June 2015, and for the last 2-1/2 years, she has been sailing on the West Coast of California, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, as an educational vessel that personifies opposition to militarism and the use of nuclear weapons. The continuing saga of the Golden Rule is a part of the rich history of maritime Hawaii. Furthermore, the Golden Rule will be coming back to Hawaii this summer, sailing around the Islands for several months, before proceeding across the Pacific to the Marshall Islands, Guam, Okinawa, Japan and possibly the Korean Peninsula.

Hans K. Van Tilburg, NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, Hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

The former USRCS steamer McCulloch, later USCG Cutter McCulloch, was en route from San Pedro to Mare Island, California, on June 13, 1917. The vessel was under command of Captain John Cantwell and had a crew of 90 Coast Guard and navy personnel. The cutter was to be outfitted with larger guns to support its World War I patrol duties. On that same day, the Pacific Steamship Company’s passenger steamer SS Governor, under command of Captain Howard Thomas, with 429 crew and passengers on board, was en route from San Francisco to San Pedro, California. Four miles WNW of Point Conception, the two ships collided in the fog at 7:33 AM, and McCulloch foundered 35 minutes later. Archaeologist Jack Hunter, California Department of Transportation, originally discovered the wreck site. During a joint NOAA – USCG remotely operated vehicle (ROV) training mission in October 2016, the science team surveyed the historic remains of the USCG Cutter McCulloch off Point Conception. Working from the R/V Shearwater, a VideoRay ROV was deployed to survey and characterize the archaeological remains of this historically significant shipwreck in America's U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Navy's military history. Selections from the NOAA ONMS powerpoint and video presentation have been provided by Robert Schwemmer, Channel Island National Marine Sanctuary.

Don Froning, MAHHI Foundation and Member, Board of Directors, Friends of Falls of Clyde

An important update on the ongoing efforts to save the historic ship Falls of Clyde

Keith Gordon, New Zealand Underwater Heritage Group Inc., Searov[at]xtra.co.nz

In 1902 the SS Ventnor on a voyage from New Zealand to Hong Kong, struck a reef and sank off the West Coast of New Zealand’s North Island;13 crew were lost. In addition to a cargo of coal for the British Hong Kong Naval Station, the Ventnor was carrying the remains of 499 Chinese who had died in NZ. It is a Chinese belief that if one died in a foreign land your spirit would not rest unless your remains were returned to your place of birth. The Ventnor therefore became an underwater tomb of hungry ghosts, still seeking their final resting place in far-away China. Despite early attempts by the Chinese community to find the lost ship the depth and technology of the day prevented this. In recent years there has been renewed interest in the Ventnor by the NZ Chinese community, who on learning of the early recovery of some floating coffins in 1902 and burial by Maori, have erected local memorials and observed religious rights. The Project Ventnor Group carried out a search for the lost ship and following identifying a target in the Tasman Sea as that of the Ventnor, they have carried out a survey of the 150-metre deep wreck using mixed gas diver and ROV technology. Incorrect and misinformed media reports of the Group’s activities on the wreck site caused concerns to some Chinese interests that the graves of their ancestors were being disturbed and, by bringing political pressure on the NZ Government, the Ventnor was declared an archeological site. The Project Ventnor Group is continuing survey and investigation dives on the wreck despite opposition from some quarters. To date no evidence of human remains have been discovered and there is a question whether any would still exist in the wreck after 115 years.

Suzanne S. Finney, MAHHI Foundation

The MY Hermes was a 95 foot yacht built in 1913 by W.F. Stone in California for a German trading company. In 1917 she was seized by the government in Honolulu and commissioned the USS Hermes. The yacht served in the US Navy as the USS Hermes, and later the USS Lanikai. The USS Lanikai was then transferred to the Australian Navy and renamed the HMAS Lanikai. For more than 30 years the Hermes/Lanikai served a number of military and civilian roles throughout the Pacific. This presentation offers a brief overview of her remarkable history.

Captain Rick Rogers, Sandwich Island Shipwreck Museum, Pilialoha[at]hula.net

Documented Western History in the Pacific starts with Balboa seeing and Magellan crossing the largest body of water on Earth. It did not take long for European voyagers to come across the mid-ocean group of islands that had been inhabited for about 500 years at that point. The first World Atlases showed “Los Bolcanes” and “La Farfana” where “Los Monges” and La Vesina” were eventually replaced by the “Sandwich Islands”! Massive Manila Galleons linking New Spain with Asia carried men, women and cargos of many nations. They were prey to English and Dutchmen. None were immune to the harshness of the North Pacific and all lost men and material in these seas. Visitors, deserters and castaways had an impact on a host culture, which evolved into the uniquely Hawaiian culture encountered in 1778! After presenting the evidence for these cross-cultural contacts, we should discuss what we need to do to establish proof of the shipwrecks mentioned in Hawaiian tradition.

Kelly G. Keogh, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

In May of 2017 a maritime archaeological survey at Midway Atoll aimed to explore, manage, interpret and protect maritime heritage resources in PMNM. Archival research identified at least 31 plane crashes within three miles of Midway Atoll. Dozens more are probable and many more lie three miles beyond Midway Atoll. Additional aircraft losses are reported by survivors who describe loss locations based on their first-hand experience. Of these 31 aircraft reported lost, 22 were American and 9 were Japanese and all considered war graves. The Battle of Midway was one of the most decisive U.S. victories of WWII and is referred to as the turning point of the war in the Pacific. Prior to this survey, four sunken aircraft have been located and documented by archaeologists at Midway Atoll, with three of these discovered in the last three years; dozens more remain undiscovered. In collaboration with the National Park Service’s Submerged Resources Center (NPS/SRC), East Carolina University (ECU), and Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), PMNM engaged in approximately 10 days of exploratory remote sensing survey with diver ground-truthing at Midway Atoll in specific areas of reported and probable aircraft loss during the Battle of Midway. Exploration for sunken aircraft sites also served as an opportunity for progressive multidisciplinary survey through collaboration with PMNM’s resource protection program to survey for alien invasive species on anthropogenic structures at Midway Atoll (specifically maritime heritage sites). Additionally, the project aimed to address the topic of cutting edge education, media and outreach products through innovative technology and a strategy to create captivating materials that will bring this remote place and the project to people all over the world.

Daniel A. Martinez, Chief Historian WWII Valor in the Pacific National Monument NPS, Daniel_Martinez[at]nps.gov

In the winter of 2014 there was much discussion in the office of history about the USS Arizona’s Shrine Wall’s historical accuracy. Robert Sutton -- then chief historian of the National Park Service (NPS) had decided that a comprehensive study of USS Arizona casualties should be conducted at the National Personnel Records Center (NPRC) in St. Louis, Missouri. The project was daunting to say the least. The first order of business was to put together a comprehensive research plan and find experienced researchers and technicians familiar with World War II documents. In particular, personnel records. We needed to find individuals who worked on research projects of this nature. In January 2015, with the research plan complete, an NPS planning team traveled to St. Louis. Discussions began with NPRC staff to coordinate the research and scanning of the Arizona crew records. The first trip to the record center in St. Louis would determine how our project would unfold. We soon found out a research project of this size was unprecedented in the NPRC’s history. There were a number of questions that needed to be answered. How do you organize and pull 1,177 service jackets from among millions of records? How many record pages would be scanned? How many NPRC staff members would be needed? How would the records be dispensed? How much workspace would the research team require? And finally, once the records had been reviewed and tabbed, how much time would staff need to make ready (prepping) the records for scanning? Prepping included the process of flattening the documents and determining their condition. If the record is too fragile, a Mylar sleeve must be used to protect it. The challenges of this project in many ways would still lay ahead once the process began. This presentation will be a detailed and heavily illustrated PowerPoint program that will show how this project was done and the benefits of the comprehensive research on the fallen crew of the USS Arizona on 7 December 1941.

Hans K. Van Tilburg, NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, Hans.Vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

The third Asia Pacific Regional Conference on Underwater Cultural Heritage was held between November 26-December 2 in Hong Kong, China. This conference aims to address management and protection strategies of underwater cultural heritage in Asia and the countries of the Indian and Pacific Oceans in the 21st Century. One special feature of APCONF 2017 was a pre-conference trip to the Maritime Silk Road Museum, and tour of the Nanhai No. 1, currently undergoing excavation and analysis within the facility. The Song Dynasty (960-1276 AD) shipwreck was discovered in the waters off Yangjiang (Guangdong province, Southern China) in 1987, in the very initial years of maritime archaeology in China. Some 4,000 artifacts were recovered during site dives in 2002, and 60,000 to 80,000 pieces of ceramic were estimated to remain in situ. In 2004 plans were laid for the construction of the Maritime Silk Road Museum on Hailing Island, adjacent to the wreck site. In December 2007, the entirety of the 30-meter shipwreck site, including the seabed surrounding the wreck, was lifted from the sea and placed in the “Crystal Palace” treatment tank within the museum. The museum was open to the public in 2009. Archaeologists are currently within approximately one year of reaching the bottom of the hull and completing the excavation. It is the most remarkable project I have ever seen. The Song Dynasty was a period of openness to overseas trade, increasing maritime revenue, and nautical innovation in China. The wreck was discovered near the origins of the maritime “Silk Road,” sea routes connecting the ancient Middle Kingdom to the known world. The legacy of this navigation is again celebrated today as part of China’s “One Belt-One Road” initiative launched in 2013.

Tyler Phelps, Balanced Divers Inc., phelps[at]hawaii.edu
Jessica Lotts, UH Marine Option Program, lottsjes[at]hawaii.edu

Between June 19-30, 2017 NOAA and the UH Marine Option Program conducted an archaeological survey of submerged U.S. Navy landing ships, craft, and tracked assault vehicles sunk near O‘ahu. More than 70 years ago, specialized vessels and amphibious landings were key elements in the War in the Pacific. Many remain underwater today, left from training and home front operations during WWII. The survey course, known as MAST (Maritime Archaeology Surveying Techniques), instructs marine scientists in survey methods and to document the status of submerged cultural properties. The 2017 MAST students recorded data from one LSM (Landing Ship Medium) site near Barber’s Point, four LCM (Landing Craft Mechanized) sites near the entrance to Pearl Harbor, and one LVT-1 (Amtrack) site near Hawai`i Kai. One of the LCM sites was chosen for detailed survey using baseline trilateration, resulting in the accurate site plan, an important tool for site interpretation. Specific features on this site suggest an LCM-3, a WWII-era landing craft. How it got there remains a mystery. In addition to the survey dives, the short course also included a guided tour of Pearl Harbor’s deactivated ship facility, survey training at the ruins of a 19th century steamship landing, a meeting with HURL operations director Terry Kerby at the Hawai`i Undersea Research Lab submersible workshop, and hosted behind-the-scenes tours at the USS Arizona Memorial/Visitor’s Center, the USS Bowfin Submarine Museum, and the Pacific Aviation Museum.

Hans Van Tilburg, consultant, Hans.Vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

In Taiwan, the Bureau of Cultural Heritage has responsibility for overseeing national cultural heritage preservation, maintenance, application, education, promotion, study, reward and sponsorship. This includes the underwater cultural heritage. The Antiquities and Archaeological Sites Division within the Bureau is in charge of planning, formulation and promotion of underwater cultural assets, survey, deliberation, registration, abolishment, change, assistance, supervision and consultation of underwater cultural heritage, and the zooning, management, and promotion of the underwater cultural heritage protected zone (UCH Overview Taiwan 2017). UCH work in Taiwan has been increasing in the last decade. In December 2015, Taiwan implemented its Underwater Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, which echoes the spirit of the UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. In August-September 2017 the Bureau of Cultural Heritage hosted the “Underwater Cultural Heritage Professional Talents Cultivation Project” in accordance with the 2015 UCH Preservation Act. Three foreign “well-known” instructors, Dr. Chris Underwood, Dr. Hans Van Tilburg, and Mr. Andy Viduka and many of Taiwan’s scholars and experts participated in the four-week classroom and diving workshop. This presentation covers the character of the UCH training in Taiwan, both on and off-duty in Keelung and Taipei.

Brendan L. Bliss, Instructor of History, Hawai`i Pacific University

This paper considers the impact on the Territory of Hawaii of naval activity during the First World War. It will focus that consideration mainly on the internment of German vessels. When war broke out both German merchant shipping and naval vessels sought protection in Hawaiian harbors. Most were successful but some were sunk by the Japanese within sight of their goal. The Hawaiian reaction to and involvement with these military actions by belligerent powers off their neutral ports will be of special interest. Other aspects of these naval activities to be discussed will be a reflection on how a territory separated by thousands of miles of sea from the rest of the United States dealt with issues of neutrality. The interned German vessels were an ongoing headache for the governor and military commanders in the Territory. They also were a constant public reminder of the dangers of war, even for a neutral power. How the government dealt with the fear of sabotage, espionage and/or potential attack encouraged further development of naval facilities at Pearl Harbor but also pushed the edge of neutral rights, especially as the nation shifted closer and closer to entering the conflict. Lastly this paper looks at the fate of those interned vessels once the United States entered the war.

Captain Rick Rogers, Archivist Hawaiian Airlines, Pilialoha[at]hula.net

Water-born vessels had long been the only method of travel between Islands. The invention and development of the airplane was to revolutionize the style and speed of travel. Early air-travel between Islands was closely tied to the traditions and conditions of the sea. Naval Aviation has developed as a series of water-based operations with a changing variety of missions and the machines to execute them. Following WWI, the United States Navy developed and flew ever larger flying boats over greater and greater ranges. Lessons learned by the military were transferred to Civil Aviation, culminating with the majestic clipper flights connecting the most exotic locations on earth. Amphibious aircraft with retractable landing gear could be operated out of the increasingly longer and sturdier airfields that were being paved throughout the Territories. This paper will look at a few of the pioneer aviators in the Pacific and examine the connections between their Naval experiences and Civil Aviation. We will take a look at the types of Seaplanes, Flying Boats and Amphibian Aircraft that graced our skies in a time of peace.

Blade Shepherd-Jones, Razor513[at]Hotmail.com

The island of O‘ahu is not a stranger to aircraft and ship mishaps at sea. Both civilian and military sailors and aircrew have met disaster on the ocean. Two separate large sailboat pieces were found off the South Side of O‘ahu. Few clues are left as to understanding how both vessels met their watery fate. Rumors of an airplane wreck off Mānana Island (Rabbit Island), has led to the discovery of a wing. It is believed to be a wing from a World War II fighter, a F4U Corsair. There is no record of this Corsair crashing in the area. Spear fishermen have mentioned seeing an airplane engine, but it has never been relocated. Sunset Beach is a popular surfing spot; surfers have reported seeing some sort of aircraft under the waves. Survey dives done in 2015 and 2016 have marked its location and reveal a fuselage, cockpit, and wings in surprising decent shape, being in a heavy surf zone. It has been identified as a P-47, however the identity of the pilot and the circumstances of what brought the plane to a watery grave are still a mystery.  

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28th Symposium, 2017, February 18-19, 2017
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

David J. Herdrich, American Samoa Historic Preservation Officer; President of the Micronesian Endowment for Historic Preservation, Tavita22[at]yahoo.com
Hans K. Van Tilburg, maritime archaeologist/historian NOAA ONMS Maritime Heritage Program, hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov
Michaela Howells, assistant professor biological anthropology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, howellsm[at]uncw.edu
Michael David Coszalter, student anthropology department, University of North Carolina Wilmington, mdc6712[at]uncw.edu

This presentation examines the origin, development and use of the Samoan fautasi (pulling long boats) with special reference to the tuamualua (two bowed paddling war canoes) that preceded them, describing the traditional Samoan boats and the popular racing events that have grown around them in the context of hybrid nautical design, Western colonialism and modern globalization. Previous descriptions of the development of the fautasi in the anthropological literature are, in some cases, oversimplified. Rather than simply replacing the taumualua when Samoan warfare ended, fautasi were developed (1894) because of their superior speed, a clear benefit in numerous functions including use as war boats, cargo and passenger boats, V.I.P boats, and racing boats. Over a period of 127 years all of these functions, except the popular sport of fautasi racing, fell away due to the adoption of motorized vessels. Today the annual fautasi race may be the single largest cultural event in American Samoa.

David J. Herdrich, American Samoa Historic Preservation Officer; President of the Micronesian Endowment for Historic Preservation, Tavita22[at]yahoo.com

Informal first-hand observations of the experience of training for and participating in Samoan fautasi racing in American Samoa.

Hans K. Van Tilburg, NOAA ONMS Maritime Heritage Program, Hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

During his several tours of duty in East Asia (1922-1932), Lieutenant Forrest H Wells USN became fascinated with Chinese sailing craft. Subsequently, he took thousands of photographs of Chinese sailing junks, and collected numerous wooden models from shipwrights and other sources. Later in his life he wrote several scholarly articles on the subject and came to be regarded as a prominent US expert in Chinese nautical historical development. Following his death, his rare model collection passed to his daughter, Kathryn Mears of Columbia, Missouri. Many of the models are extremely detailed and accurate representations and contain a wealth of technical and cultural information. In 2009 Ms. Mears contacted Dr. Hans Van Tilburg, giving to him her father’s photo collection, and requesting assistance in finding a home for the large model collection. Many of the traditional Chinese working craft depicted by the models and in the photographs no longer exist; they are glimpses of a vanished past. The photographs are currently being scanned, and the entire model collection is now owned and curated by Texas A&M’s ship model laboratory at College Station.

Don Froning, MAHHI Foundation and Member, Board of Directors, Friends of Falls of Clyde

Built in 1878 by the famous Russell and Company on the Clyde River, the four-masted ship Falls of Clyde was one of the most successful general cargo carriers of her day. In 1898, the ship was registered with the Hawaiian government and proudly flew the Hawaiian flag. In 1907 she was modified to carry molasses and oil, and as a sailing tanker was involved in the Hawaiian transpacific sugar trade for the Matson Navigation Company. In later years she served as a fuel barge in Alaska, but historic renovations beginning in 1968 soon brought her back to her full glory as a museum ship, a familiar and well-loved part of the Honolulu waterfront. The Falls of Clyde was designated a National Historic Landmark Vessel in 1989. Today the Falls of Clyde is the world’s only surviving four-masted full- rigged ship, and the world’s only example of a sailing tanker… Recent developments in the efforts to restore the ship now threaten her continued existence in the State of Hawai’i. This presentation provides an update on the project.

Kelly Keogh, NOAA ONMS Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, Kelly.keogh[at]noaa.gov
Jason Raupp, program archaeologist East Carolina University, Rauppj14[at]ecu.edu
Melissa Price, senior archaeologist Florida Bureau of Archaeological Research, Price2m[at]gmail.com
John Burns, lecturer and diving safety officer University of Hawai`i Hilo, Johnhr[at]Hawaii.edu

The 2015 documentation of a wrecked tanker at Maro Reef and its subsequent identification as that of the United States Naval Ship Mission San Miguel makes an important contribution to both the maritime heritage and ecology of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Despite the fact that the American military’s critical need for petroleum led to the construction of scores of tankers, this site represents one of the few extant examples of this important vessel type. These unglamorous, yet hardworking ships played an important role in US maritime history and this wreck serves as a reminder of the frantic race to match wartime service demands and highlights the resulting infrastructure that emerged to support them. This presentation provides details of the ship’s construction and decorated military career, efforts to document and interpret its massive and well preserved structure, and the environmental significance of its discovery.

Hans K. Van Tilburg, NOAA ONMS Maritime Heritage Program, Hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

On August 10th 2016 NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer, operated by the Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, deployed its remotely operated vehicle system to survey a sonar target near Wake Island, an anomaly suspected to be the Japanese destroyer Hayate, sunk by shore side gunnery during the Battle of Wake Island on December 11th 1941. The archaeological survey was directed by NOAA’s Maritime Heritage Program staff at the Daniel K. Inouye Regional Center on Ford Island, Honolulu. The ROV’s tasks included confirming the ID of the wreck, completing a perimeter survey of major features, noting battle damage, and assessing the status of deterioration. The target, though, was not the expected destroyer but the Japanese peace-time converted merchant vessel Amakasu Maru No. 1. The Amakasu Maru, launched in August 1939, was a 1,913-ton, 271-foot long, 40-foot beam, Type D merchant vessel, the first of her class of 40 similar vessels built prior to the war. On December 24th 1942, soon after departing from the Japanese garrison on Wake Island, the Amakasu Maru was torpedoed by the USS Triton SS-201, going down with 12 of her crew. Diagnostic features confirmed the identity of the merchant ship, sitting upright on sand with a slight list to starboard. Large steel rectangular containers in the hold and valve connections on deck correspond to the ship’s role during the war, water carrier for the Japanese fleet and supply vessel for the distant outposts and wartime garrisons in the Marshall Islands. Though not associated with the famous battle, this new discovery highlights the often overlooked reality for navies of the world, the critical role of the auxiliary supply train.

Chris Dewey, President Maritime Archaeological Society, Info[at]maritimearchaeological.org

The Maritime Archaeological Society, based in Astoria, Washington, was created as a 501(c)3 non-profit organization to help document shipwrecks and other submerged archaeological sites, and to assist with the conservation of artifacts. Sharing a passion for maritime heritage with the public, the M.A.S. promotes awareness in the importance of maritime archaeology through community outreach and educational programs. Internal training programs are producing qualified volunteers to assist with fieldwork and research opportunities. Projects undertaken to date include the Oregon Coastal Survey Project, The Beeswax Wreck Project and The Big Anchor Project. M.A.S. has received grants to develop, design and deploy a remotely operated submersible vehicle, which has already recorded data on a 19th century shipwreck in the Lower Columbia River. While based in the Pacific Northwest, M.A.S. hopes to serve a greater area on the West Coast before expanding operations into the central Pacific.

Hans K. Van Tilburg, NOAA ONMS Maritime Heritage Program, Hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

S-28 was an early S-class American submarine, one of a fleet of 51 such boats which were to achieve iconic status in the minds of the public, the first “Silent Service.” S-28, old by the time World War II began, conducted seven war patrols in the Aleutian Islands and the far north. The Aleutian Campaign has been called the “Forgotten Battle,” a difficult contest between adversaries at the far end of the island chain in Alaska, and a battle with the weather, terrain, and remote distances along the Bering Sea. Finally, in November 1943, S-28 escaped the storms and the cold and headed south, commencing training operations in Hawaiian waters. On July 4th 1944 S-28 was completing the second day of torpedo exercises with her escort Coast Guard Cutter Reliance (WPC-150) southwest of Barber’s Point, when her surface escort lost all communication with the sub. The 22-year old boat never resurfaced. Oil slicks soon appeared in the vicinity of sub’s loss. NOAA and partner agencies have been collaborating on plans to locate and survey the wreck, and attempt to answer some of the questions surrounding how this boat was lost with her crew of 49 sailors. On September 3rd 2015 biologists and archaeologists conducted a joint opportunistic survey of one of S-28’s sister subs, the S-19 (previously discovered by the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab in 2005). S-19 was not lost accidentally, but stripped and intentionally disposed in response to international arms limitations in 1938. Survey of the site may provide some clues as to what to expect from the pending S-28 discovery.

Bonnie Kahape`a-Tanner Executive Director/Captain, Kānehūnāmoku Voyaging Academy, Info[at]kanehunamoku.org

Outreach video: Kānehūnāmoku Voyaging Academy (KVA) is a nonprofit, Hawaii based, 501(c)3 organization. Kānehūnāmoku, a 29ft double hull sailing canoe, is a hands-on, dynamic, and living classroom for students of all ages. Based at Kaʻalaea in Kāneʻohe bay, students become crew and learn all aspects of sailing the canoe, including maritime skills, non-instrumental navigation, elemental observations, teamwork and communication.

Marianne George, Pacific Traditions Society, vakataumako[at]gmail.com

Joe Genz researched traditional Marshallese knowledge of swell patterns and the imagery of them known as “stick charts” (2009, 2016). Genz and his Marshallese collaborators strived to experience and identify swell patterns during inter-island voyages, but were challenged to sense or understand, the ‘stick chart’ modeling of direct lines between islands, called dilep—“backbones” or “spines.” Although satellite imagery shows refracted and reflected swell lines between many islands, there is little evidence of such “spines” between islands. The late Polynesian Wayfinder, Koloso Kaveia of Taumako, used a particular swell pattern between the Duff Islands Group and the Reef/Outer Reef Islands Group. The biggest feature of the pattern is an elliptical shape formed by the combination of two opposed, refracted swells. Some remnant energy of the two swells moves a weakened version of them into the interior space of the elipse. There the opposed swells cross each other. Additionally, the steep, short, reflected swells cross through the two weak refracted swells. The crossing of these three swells forms a line of peaky nodes. Kaveia described how raised liquid ridge line along the top of swell lines form liquid bumps, or nodes, when swells cross through each other. I hypothesize that for those who can sense the pattern, a line of these nodes may be the “spine'” between islands that Marshallese call dilep. I note that Taumako wayfinders correlate and calibrate swell patterns with other phenomena, that may help us understand dilep. I also note that it takes a lot of experience and focus to recognize such patterns at sea, and the guidance of someone who has mastered that ancient wayfinding art is extremely helpful.

Richard Gould, Professor (Emeritus), Anthropology, Brown University, Providence, RI, Rgould49[at]gmail.com

In 1980 I was invited by Dr. Maury Morgenstein to participate in the first-ever archaeological survey of Kaho'olawe, conducted under the oversight and with the support of the U.S. Marine Corps, Kaneohe Bay. The survey was brief -- about 2 1/2 weeks -- and preliminary, but our findings led to more intensive and longer-term surveys there by Dr. Patrick McCoy, head of Alpine Archaeology, Inc. In spite of generally poor weather and massive amounts of unexploded ordnance from the use of the island as a target by the Navy and Marines since the start of World War II, we were able establish some initial findings: --- The island showed extensive signs of human habitation prior to the arrival of Captain Cook. --- Habitation sites tended to be ephemeral but contained portable stone artifacts generally not seen from sites on the major Hawaiian Islands. Many of these were impromptu or "instant" tools. --- The island had at least one major heiau as well as one task-specific shrine. --- Attention focused on the large basalt quarry and workshop near the center of the island, which has since come to play an important role in identifying prehistoric contact between different island groups through widespread return voyaging. --- In 1980 the island was dry and uninhabited, and the question remains as to whether the loss of the water table there was pre- or post-European.

Victoria S. Creed, Waihona Aina Corp. & Cultural Surveys Hawai`i, Waihonaa001[at]hawaii.rr.com

Although traditional fishery practices prior to Contact (1779) can be partly constructed from legends, etc, the 1839 Constitution devotes more space than other documents, to describing traditional fishery rights surviving at that time. Fisheries were attached to most ahupua‘a (land division out to sea 1 mile or to the fringing reefs) on all the islands. Land Commissioners in the Māhele had no right to award fisheries attached to lands. But many claims are made for fisheries. We learn that fisheries were also attached to some ‘ili (small sections within an ahupua‘a) and to ‘ili ku, divisions only responsible to the King; that the konohiki (chiefly land managers) had could taboo one fish for his/her private use; and with his/her fishermen, he/she could decide when spawning fish had to be totally tabooed, or alternately, the konohiki could take one third of all the permitted fish caught within his/her fishery; ahupua‘a residents had the right to fish within that fishery, but no others, but would give the konohiki his/her share; one third of all fisheries belonged to the konohiki, one third to the King himself (Crown lands), and one third to the Monarchy or government. Government fisheries became open to all fishermen. Under the non-Hawaiian controlled Republic and Territorial government, fishing rights were considered feudal, and with U.S. Congress and the Organic Act of 1900, they wanted to extinguish all fisheries for private use. Congress mandated remaining fisheries be legally proclaimed (done by the rich and mostly non-Hawaiians) for two years, and those owners had to compensated. This was problematic as no mainland or other country had a process for evaluating fisheries. Pearl Harbor fisheries were one of the few compensated, paid for by Congress. Since Hawai‘i never had extra money for compensation, many were never condemned. Those in power saw that once open to everyone, fisheries were becoming overfished and the value would become moot. Remaining fisheries were never formally condemned. Today State-designated fisheries exist as conservation areas and are perhaps less than one percent of traditional fisheries.

Captain Richard W. Rogers, Sandwich Islands Maritime Museum, plialoha[at]hula.net

A look at “The General Chart”, produced after Captain Cook’s third voyage, shows a group of islands to the east of the “Sandwich Islands.” These have long been presumed to represent earlier discoveries of the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the many, many maps and charts of the Pacific, dating to the early 16th century offers hints, possibly conclusions, about when some of these earlier discoveries took place. Looking again at the “General Chart,” and subsequent 18th century maps, one will notice more islands plotted to the east, between the Hawaiian islands and the mainland, where it has long been confirmed, no islands exist. One island is depicted to the north and some charts show discoveries to the west as well. This paper will review the presumed earlier discoveries of the Hawaiian islands and contemplate the cause for placement of these other cartographical features.

Tom Wolforth, Cultural Resource Manager and Tribal Liaison; Alaska Army National Guard, Twolforth[at]hotmail.com

Have you ever driven over an ancient Hawaiian battlefield? Have you ever hiked a trail where warriors moved to engage with their enemy? Have you ever worked on a CRM project where a battle took place and didn’t know it? I have. And I’m willing to bet that you have, too. Have you ever seen a feature that may have been a campsite for a contingent of warriors preparing for battle? You may have and not realized it, not having a model that accounts for that kind of feature. I can help with that. I’ve developed a model that helps us to think about those possibilities as we survey the landscape. I’ll briefly reference the model, show some examples of possible warrior camp features, point to a new website that makes the historical data easily accessible, pitch a map that helps to locate over 100 battle locations on the island of Hawaiʻi, and enjoy seeing you at the symposium.

Hans K. Van Tilburg, NOAA ONMS Maritime Heritage Program, Hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

Though some in the past have stated that Hawai`i “has no shipwrecks,” the seafloor surrounding the islands actually contains the cultural footprint of hundreds of wreck sites. The systematic investigation of the underwater cultural heritage in Hawai`i started in 1989 under the University of Hawaii’s Marine Option Program. At the same time, manned submersibles with the Hawai`i Undersea Research Lab contributed many deep water discoveries and site surveys. Today NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries continues cultural resource site assessments, in collaboration with the Office of Ocean Exploration and Research and partner agencies and programs. Public divers continue to discover more sites and share their information. Submerged shipwrecks, submarines, and aircraft reflect major parts of Hawaii’s recent past, and discovery of these sites focuses public attention on the field of maritime archaeology and heritage preservation. In 2013 the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, which reviews offshore energy development proposals, entered into a three-year agreement with NOAA for compiling and analyzing cultural resource data for the marine environment surrounding the main Hawaiian Islands. One of the three main objectives of the agreement was to develop a database of known, reported, and potential submerged cultural resources. The inventory is intended to facilitate the management and protection of these historic properties and improve the consideration of potential impacts during project reviews. The combination of existing data and the need to improve the review process during project planning, has led to the first shipwreck inventory and assessment for the Hawaiian Islands, comprised of a Microsoft Access geo-referenced database of known, reported, and potential submerged cultural resources emphasizing the use of primary sources, and the narrative report The Unseen Landscape: Inventory and Assessment of Submerged Cultural Resources in Hawai`i, providing cultural, environmental and historic context to the 2,114 entries within the database.

Blade Shepherd-Jones, USCG reserve; diver/researcher, Razor513[at]hotmail.com

Since Hawaii’s first aircraft flight on December 31, 1910, aviation has captured the imagination of residents who fantasized of traveling by air to outer islands or far off lands. With this liberation of travel, there have been accidents. In 2015, three recently discovered plane wrecks were found in the waters off Oahu. Tech divers exploring new sites off Diamond Head stumbled onto an upside down Piper PA-28R Cherokee Arrow believed to of gone down in 1972. Second, while looking for a suppose of P-40 landing gear with possible links to the Pearl Harbor attack off the old Bellows airfield, a different P-40 debris field was located, including an engine, landing gears, and prop. This wreck highlights the dangers of training in Hawaii in World War 2. Lastly, there were rumors on Scubaboard of a mysterious set of wings off Nanakuli. The wings are believed to be de Havilland DH.104 Dove, which there is no record of a crash in the area.

Wendy M. Coble, Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency, Wendy.m.coble.civ[at]mail.mil

On July 9th 2016, NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration, in collaboration with NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency, conducted a non-invasive live dive ROV event, combining internet outreach and maritime archaeological survey. The remotely operated vehicle Deep Discoverer (D2) landed near the intact wing of a B-29 Superfortress resting on the seafloor upside down with landing gear and three of the four engines still attached, near the former WWII air field on Tinian Island, Northern Marianas. This was the first crash site discovered of over a dozen American B-29s lost in the area while flying missions during the war. All of the wreckage and debris seems to represent one aircraft, although portions of the forward and aft sections of the fuselage were not found. The discovery represents an important symbol of America’s final push to end the war, an historically significant time in U.S. history, and is of interest to multiple management groups as well as several universities and foundations working to identify crash sites for the families of lost servicemen.

Elizabeth Briggs, maritime archaeologist, graduate Cambridge University, Lisabriggs3[at]yahoo.com

The complex stratigraphy of terrestrial sites with a long history of occupation that require a Harris Matrix to discern which layers date to what period is often unnecessary on many simple and straightforward shipwreck sites. But this is not always the case. This paper explores the stratigraphy of the Babuljaš shipwreck, Croatia, and the upside-down nature of the deposits found there. A 4th century C.E. ship travelling from North Africa to Croatia, the Babuljaš ship sank on top of submerged Neolithic and Bronze Age settlement sites, and since its sinking has been covered by colluvium containing additional artefacts from the nearby islet of Babuljaš. A fascinating example of terrestrial archaeology meeting underwater archaeology, the Babuljaš shipwreck site serves as a reminder that underwater stratigraphy is not always as simple as it seems.

Emily A. Menzies, University of Hawai'i Mānoa student; research conducted under University of Rhode Island, emenzies[at]Hawaii.edu

The island of Bermuda, although only 22 miles long, is surrounded by over 400 corpses of sunken vessels. Before the 20th century, the local people of Bermuda initially salvaged shipwrecks for equipment, supplies, materials, and dutiable goods. The most famous maritime explorer in Bermuda was Edward “Teddy” Tucker. In his time as a maritime explorer, he discovered more than 100 shipwrecks around Bermuda. In 1955, Tucker’s discovery of the San Pedro, a 16th century Spanish vessel, drew the attention of archaeologist and historians around the world because of the gold and jewelry that had been discovered on it. In this paper, I look at the practices of Teddy Tucker and how they influenced Bermudian history and the evolution of maritime archaeology. By looking at the ethics of Tucker’s archaeological practice and using the San Pedro as a case study, I explore how Tucker’s lack of ethical methodologies in regards to artifact removal and care was a major contribution to maritime archaeology. His methodologies made historians, archaeologists, and the Bermudian government realize that there are a lot of important artifacts, cultural and economical alike, to be found and if people do not have the proper training or ethical values to work on these sites, their value will be lost.

Steve Price, University of Hawai`i Undersea Research Lab diver/researcher, stevenpr[at]hawaii.edu

After World War II the US Military had a large problem. They had stockpiled a massive amount of ordnance in anticipation of the impending land invasion of Japan. Fortunately for all, the war ended before these weapons were needed. They were now tasked with what to do with this huge excess of various bombs, artillery rounds, mines, torpedoes and depth charges. They opted for the simplest and most inexpensive method available, which was to dispose of them by dumping them offshore in deep water where they thought they would never be seen again. Come along on a journey into the deep to these areas of disposed ordnance with the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab. The lab and their two Pisces submersibles have made dives into these waters for decades and has created an “Ordnance Identification Manual” to aid in the recognition of these decaying artifacts of war.

Blade Shepherd-Jones, USCG reserve; diver/researcher, Razor513[at]hotmail.com

The 162 ft Moko Holo Hele (YFB-87) was a U.S. Navy car ferry that traveled to and from Ford Island, Pearl Harbor. She was in service from 1970 – 1998. Once the Admiral Bernard Clarey Bridge was completed, the ferry was not needed. In 2004, the Moko Holo Hele was sold and being converted into a fishing barge, off Kona, Big Island. Later, the old ferry was abandon at Marisco Shipyard. In 2015, an all-volunteer effort made up of divers, volunteer organizations, and local citizens started cleaning and stripping the Moko Holo Hele to become an artificial reef. Planned manmade reefs can provide habitat for a variety of marine life. For this reason, artificial reefs are often popular with scuba divers. Personal effects on the ship were donated to thrift stores. Nonferrous metals were recycled for funding. Both engines and ship’s components were salvaged to be repurposed at the Marisco Shipyard. Social media played a major role getting the word out about this unique opportunity. The volunteers spent a year and half of hard work preparing the ship. Now the Moko Holo Hele sits idle waiting on paperwork for her next duty assignment as Hawaii’s newest artificial reef and dive site.

Steve Price, University of Hawai`i Undersea Research Lab diver/researcher, stevenpr[at]hawaii.edu
Blade Shepherd-Jones, USCG reserve; diver/researcher, Razor513[at]hotmail.com

In a barren area off the South shore of Oahu a shipwreck was found in shallow water. This forgotten vessel apparently ran aground many decades ago and has crumbled into a debris field of its components. Follow along as the clues emerge and the potential candidates dissolve in an perplexing effort to place a name on this vessel and to tell the story of its life and eventual death. In the end you can decide for yourself if the riddle is truly solved or if more clues are still needed.  

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27th Symposium, 2016, February 13-14, 2016
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Gwen Sinclair, Head of Government Documents and Maps, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa Library
[Presentation Summary]

The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) operated an office in Honolulu following World War II to purchase surplus from the armed services and distribute it to war-torn countries in Europe and Asia. Archival research has revealed the wide variety of surplus items and their sometimes-surprising destinations. Controversies that arose concerning UNRRA’s role in surplus disposal will also be discussed.

Captain Rick Rogers

A simple web-search for "Maui Shipwrecks" brings up multiple images of shipwrecks around the Valley Island. Submarine rides and dive shops can get you closer or even inside the more popular wreck sites. You can now look on-line for the local newspaper indexes for "Shipwrecks." Thrums Hawaiian Annual recapitulates the major stories of the year back as far as 1875, including "Marine Disasters." A number of Hawaiian History books have maritime components. The University of Hawaii is a repository for copies of many Whaling log books. Missionary letters and other 19th century documents mention maritime calamities. Most of the Northern European explorers and some of the Fur traders left journals of their experiences in the Pacific. Early Hawaiian History books and Spanish Galleon Records hint at epic legends of castaways who seem to have had a profound effect on the course of events across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

Cindy Hunter, Director, MOP

No abstract available


Suzanne S. Finney, MAHHI Foundation
[Presentation Summary]

The study of 19th century American whaling involves investigation of a wide diversity of materials, including personal letters, ships’ logs, and account ledgers. In order to navigate through the materials the researcher must develop a certain mastery for reading 19th century handwriting, understanding 19th century accounting practices, and maintaining focus on the goals at hand. This presentation discusses one experience working within the archives of the New Bedford Whaling Museum.

Don Froning, MAHHI Foundation and Member, Board of Directors, Friends of Falls of Clyde

As many symposium attendees know, the Falls of Clyde is the only surviving iron-hulled, four-masted, fully-rigged ship in the world, and is Hawaii’s only non-military museum ship. Built in Scotland in 1878, she sailed all over the world, serving in many different roles, and for the last several decades, she has been moored at Pier 7 in Honolulu. An annual “update” of the “Falls” has become a standard at the symposium, and this becomes ever more important as new challenges emerge.

Jeff Kuwabara, Marine Option Program

No abstract available

Victoria S. Creed, Ph.D., Waihona Aina Corp., and Cultural Surveys Hawaii, Inc.; Brian Nakamura, Hawaiian kilokilo; Loko’olu Quintero, Chanter trained by John Lake

Today, we know Polynesians were plying the Pacific Ocean long before Capt. Cook came to the Pacific Ocean. While archival material describes some of these, when doing Hawaiian research, one also can consult living persons, who have been traditionally trained by their elders about their family, their land and their rights. Two of these trained people are here today, Bryan Nakamura and Loko‘olu Quintero. The pānānā gives cardinal directions. However, when Capt. Cook came, and he showed Hawaiians a magnetic compass, they called it a pānānā, because they understood the measuring devices they had already invented served the same purpose. However, the new magnetic compass was much handier to use and so they readily adopted it. The different forms of this compass are from largest to smallest, 1) a large structure, like Kukaniloko; 2) an 8-meter wall with a notch in which the first rising of Southern Cross was visible (Kahikinui); 3) a heiau along H3 in Luluku, Kāne‘ohe (now destroyed by H-3) from where you could see the sun rising along each side of Mt. Olomana, on the north at summer solstice and on the south on the winter solstice, 4) stones that were modified by incising to show directions, as the “ahu a ka lā” at Nā pohaku o Hauwahine; at Kawainui 5) a semi-portable, wooden, very stable disk with a carved out upper side wherein water was poured to view the important stars; and 6) the gourd compass also filled with water.

Don Froning
, MAHHI Foundation

Most Americans, and of course most Hawaii residents, are familiar with the infamous attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941. What many may not be aware of is that Naval Air Station (NAS) Kaneohe Bay was also attacked on that morning; in fact, it was attacked first! In 1994, the Marine Option Program at the University of Hawaii at Manoa conducted a Maritime Archaeology Survey Techniques (MAST) course in Kaneohe Bay on what was determined to be the wreckage of one of the PBY-5 Catalina “flying boats”; a reconnaissance seaplane based at NAS Kaneohe Bay, and moored in the bay on that morning. In June of 2015, the MAST course was again conducted at this site. Revisiting a previous field school site not only gives new students an opportunity to work on something which is unknown to them, but also allows us to get an “update” in terms of what the “site formation process” has been up to, in this case, over the past 21 years. The team of 4 staff members and 8 divers was led by Dr. Hans Van Tilburg of NOAA’s Maritime Heritage Program. A thorough study was conducted, and a detailed “plan view” drawing of the site was completed.

Wendy Coble, M.A., Historian and Underwater Archaeologist Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (DPAA)

Wendy Coble works for the Defense Prisoner of War Missing in Action Accounting Agency as the lead Historian in their Underwater Multidisciplinary Team. Wendy obtained her undergraduate degree in Anthropology specializing in Archaeology from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Her MA she earned from East Carolina University in Maritime History and Underwater Archaeology. She has been working in the anthropology and archaeology fields for more than 23 years. Although working on various land and underwater sites her specialty is in aviation related wrecks, especially military aviation. She has worked for the Naval History and Heritage Command's Underwater Archaeology Branch, the Department of Transportation's Maritime Administration and various other entities while managing her own Cultural Resources Firm. Her work has taken her to more than 12 countries including many small Pacific Island nations.

Deloris Guttman, African American Diversity Cultural Center Hawai`i O’ahu (AADCCH)

Merchant vessels in the 18th and 19th centuries were fraught with danger and discomfort. Blacks opted for a maritime hellish livelihood of seafaring against the alternatives ashore, choosing the mode of life their African ancestral reverence for the water spirit. Seafaring created a footprint for freedom for men of color and a pipeline for better opportunity beyond slavery. Honolulu was such an enchanting port for Black mariners and many jumped ship and made Hawaii their home. Many ship captains refused to stop in the islands for obtaining supplies because desertions were common. Anthony D. Allen provides a glimpse into the life of an African American who was born into slavery at the time of the Revolutionary War and became a respected, prosperous settler in early19th century Hawai'i, like hundreds of his African brothers on commercial and whaling ships in the 19th century. Allen was a cook on the ship “Catherine” with Captain William Blanchard who discharged him on the North West Coast at Norfolk Sound. Allen took passage aboard the “Isabella” with Captain William H. Davis and came to Honolulu in 1810. Captain Davis employed Allen as a steward on his ship “Isabella” that took King Kamehameha I and his five Queens from one island to the next returning to Oahu to celebrate the 4th of July. Allen came ashore with his wages, which amounted to $150, to live with Hewahewa a high priest, for four months. Later, Hewahewa gave Allen six acres of land in Waikiki. According to custom of the islands, the land came with two wives who were given to him.


Blade Shepherd-Jones

In January of 2015, three wreck divers were exploring potential wreck sites. The team investigated a large man-made debris field off the south shore of Oahu. Initially it was thought to be some long forgotten old dilapidate barge, but there was a distinctive ship’s keel with rib-like frames. Most of the other items seem to be metal and various cylindrical like types of pipes. One very large pipe appeared to be possibly a mast or a sleeve for a wooden mast. Among the debris they found numerous bricks. Were these mysterious brick ballast or cargo? The evidence seemed to be suggesting that this wreck might not be a barge at all, but possibly an iron sailing ship. After a yearlong investigation through historical literature, era newspapers, and studies of the bricks, the end results were a surprising outcome. The research seemed to be pointing to a vessel of historical significance to Hawaii and could quite possibly be the oldest known shipwreck site on Oahu.

Lisa Briggs, Ph.D. student, University of Oxford

Can isotope analysis be used to provenance shipwreck cargoes? Carbon stable isotope analysis is conducted on 13 waterlogged olive stones recovered from the 4th century B.C.E. Mazotos shipwreck, Cyprus, 20 charred olive stones from the Hellenistic farmhouse at Tria Platania, Greece, 10 charred olive stones from a Hellenistic tavern at Corinth, Greece, and 20 modern olive stones from Chios, Greece. Through analysis of these results, the possibility of determining the geographic origin of the Mazotos olive stones is assessed. Further implications for our understanding of amphorae use and the trade in whole olives in the ancient Mediterranean is explored. Results are suggestive of multiple geographic origins for the Mazotos olive stones. This discovery calls for a reexamination of trade dynamics and sailor’s food procurement in the ancient Mediterranean.


Christopher Dewey, Maritime Archaeological Society; Read by Captain Rick Rogers

The Newly formed Maritime Archaeological Society has been developing educational programs and pursuing field projects in the Pacific Northwest since incorporation in early 2015. This paper will review the M.A.S accomplishments to date, and discuss the projects being planned for 2016.

Brenden L. Bliss, M.A., Instructor of History, Hawai‘i Pacific University

This paper begins by remembering the naval role of Hawai‘i in World War I, including the Japanese presence in Hawaiian waters, before considering how the naval history of World War I and World War II merged on December 7th, 1941. Eight of the United States’ naval vessels which were damaged by the Japanese that morning were veterans of the First World War. This paper reviews their contribution to that World War and then discusses the impact those same vessels had on the Second World War. While Pearl Harbor became the grave for some of these experienced warriors, due to the hard work of the shipyard, it also was the crucible that shaped the remaining vessels into vital fighters of this new Second World War. Although the December 7th attack on Pearl Harbor is often perceived as the death knell of the battleship, this event ironically highlights the continuity of United States naval history between the two World Wars.

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26th Annual Symposium, 2015, February 14-15, 2015
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)


Dr. Jonathan Kay Kamakawiwoʻole Osorio, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

This will be a presentation of music and story of and about Puʻuloa and militarization in Hawaiʻi and will also address the possible futures of Puʻuloa in a post-militarized Hawaiʻi.

Matt Sproat and Trisha Kehaulani Watson, Honua Consulting Inc., Honua[at]honuaconsulting.com

The Pearl Harbor and ‘Ewa district historically was known as Pu‘uloa. It was the home of many ancient chiefs, important battles, and refugees of wars. Pu‘uloa has a very unique history, but none like the history of two sharks that were residents of the lochs around what is present day Pearl Harbor. These two sharks, Ka‘ahupahau and her brother Kahi‘uka were not man-eaters, but were believed to be protectors of the chiefs and the residents of the Pu‘uloa area. Native Hawaiians and local fisherman warned contractors and the Navy that where they were attempting to create a landing for their large ships of Pearl Harbor in the home of the great shark guardian, Ka‘ahupahau and that great harm and tragedy would follow. The heritage of Pu‘uloa and ‘Ewa continues to this day, with mele and stories continuing to inform community education programs.

Deloris Guttman, Historian and Jenna Robinson, Graduate Student, African American Diversity Cultural Center Hawai‘i, O‘ahu, Aadcch[at]aadcch.org, www.aadcch.org

West Loch Disaster on May 21, 1944 was the second tragedy two and half years after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In an area of the vast naval base known as West Loch Peninsula, almost three dozen large landing ships sat lashed together in a half-dozen groups, brimming with fuel, ammunition and other material. It was a relatively quiet Sunday with last minutes preparations on the way for voyage to the Mariana Islands. A Black unit, the 29th Chemical Decontamination Company from the nearby army base, Schofield Barracks was loading Landing Ship Tank (LST) 353 with ammunition, gas and supplies for code name “Operation Forager.” About 3:08, an explosion on LST 353 ripped open spreading fuel, ammunition, red-hot shrapnel and flames hurtled toward neighboring LSTs, setting off new fires. Some sailors fought the flames, others tried to get their LSTs moving away from the fire-engulfed vessels. Other escaping ships and arriving rescue vessels ran over men who had jumped into the water. The explosions threw body parts and chunks of wood and metal hundreds of feet. Before the day ended, hundreds of men were dead and near hundreds more were wounded. Six of the landing ships were destroyed and several others damaged. The mission of the Chemical Decontamination Unit was used to do all the undesirable work. Blacks that served in segregated units during WWII were relegated to less glorious tasks such as stevedore laborers, servants, mess men, gravediggers and other dirty jobs. What makes the loss of life at West Loch a tragic situation, the Department of Defense kept this information classified until 1960.

Rick Rogers, Sandwich Island Shipwreck Museum Plialoha[at]hula.net

Saavedra's officers passed "LOS BOLCANES" to Starboard westbound in 1527. In 1548 Bartholomew de la Torra was in command of a small Avisio with documents for the Viceroy of New Spain. Failing to battle the trade winds he put in at FARFANA, "an island that spewed fire from five places", before returning to the Island of Thieves. Mercator, Ortilious and mapmakers around the world soon depicted these discoveries in the center of the Pacific. LOS MONGES, LA MESA, LA VESINA, and LAS DASGRACIADA were soon added to the maps and eventually replaced by the SANDWICH ISLANDS. The Englishman William Adams, arrived in Japan in 1600. He was in command of the last of a fleet of Dutch ships which had suffered many misadventures. In a letter to his wife, published by the Hakluyt Society, he told of the desertion of eight men, at an island of "man-eaters," in 16 degrees north. Hawaiian legends place the event at KEALAKEKUA BAY. Two of these deserters became influential enough to have been contended with by UMI in his subjection of Hawai`i Island. Lono e ka Ehu gave his daughter, while`I mai Kalani chose battle. Kamakau describes that battle on page 18 of "Ruling Chiefs" in a way that tells how, in this case, Western weapons did not prevail against Hawaiian Armies. Later, in 1705, the SAN FRANCISCO XAVIER turned up missing on her outbound voyage between Manila and Acapulco. Hawaiian legends chronicle a pair of shipwreck survivors landing at place called Kulou in South Kona. It has yet to be determined how the discovery of a Manila Galleon in Hawaiian waters will be handled. But the best outcome would come after we determine her resting spot, somewhere in South Kona.

Don Froning, Friends of Falls of Clyde , froning[at]hawaii.edu

The Falls of Clyde was named for a river in Scotland, the country where she was built in 1878. She is the only surviving iron-hulled, four-masted, fully-rigged ship in the world, and is Hawaii’s only non-military museum ship. The ship is still moored at Pier 7 in Honolulu, and since 2008 has been owned by the Friends of the Falls of Clyde, a 501c3 Non-Profit Organization. The “Friends” are beginning a major fundraising campaign in the hopes getting the “Falls” into drydock soon for needed repairs. Like most ships, the entire history of the Falls of Clyde is fascinating. Although some of that history has been told in previous symposia, it is time for a “recap” of her history, and an update on what is to come.

Taylor Shedd, University of Hawai‘i Marine Option Program. Tshedd[at]hawaii.edu

The history and tradition of sailing legend Irving Johnson still lives on today. Johnson was the first to establish a vessel based program for university students to learn the academic and technical skills of sailing. Johnson circumnavigated the world seven times aboard his vessel Yankee, each time with a new crew of inexperienced university students. One of Johnson`s sailing protégés, Jim Stoll, founded Action Quest and Sea|Mester, a sailing adventure camp for high school students and a university study abroad program. Sea|Mester continues to teach students aboard two schooners around the world through experiences and hands on learning that prepares students to set their own course in life. Last fall I got to experience this unique opportunity first hand sailing over 7,400 nautical miles from Singapore around the Cape of Good Hope to Cape Town crossing the historic Indian Ocean.


David Cottrell, Board Member, Grays Harbor Historical Seaport

When the Lady Washington left Boston in 1787 on the first American fur trading voyage to the Northwest coast of America, nobody suspected that the little sloop was beginning a voyage of exploration that was to last 10 years. She was never to return to Boston. In the course of her trade, Lady Washington was to make five separate visits to the Hawaiian Islands before she wrecked in 1797 near Vigan in the Philippine Islands. The stories of the nine men she left in the Islands, from Ni'ihau to Hawai'i, are rarely told. Pieced together from journals and memoirs, they shed an interesting light on the early island trade at a time when the indigenous people were the dominant traders

Jim Mockford, Grays Harbor Historical Seaport Authority Advisory Council, jmockford[at]wacom.com

American Brig Lady Washington made five voyages to Hawaii in the late 18th century. It was the first American flag vessel to enter the Pacific and begin fur trading on the Northwest Coast under the command of Robert Gray in 1788. As consort vessel to the Columbia Rediviva commanded by John Kendrick the Lady Washington was originally rigged as a sloop and made its first visit to Hawaii as a sloop en route to China. Captains Gray and Kendrick switched command of their respective ships in 1789 and it was Robert Gray who arrived in Hawaii first on Columbia Rediviva. Two Hawaiians were invited to join the Americans on their return voyage to Boston and Attoo and Opie also became the first Hawaiians to circumnavigate the world. This paper notes the travels and intercultural journeys not only the first Hawaiian men to sail across the Pacific on American tall ships but it will examine the story of voyages by two Hawaiian women, Rahina and Timarroe who sailed in 1792 on the English Brig Jenny to the west coast. During a meeting of British and Spanish officers and their wives at Monterey Rahina and Timarroe performed the first Hula on the west coast further described by the author in "Dance and Diplomacy at Nootka Sound and Monterey in 1792" (Noticias del Puerto de Monterey, 2003). In 1796 Captain Broughton of HMS Providence mentioned the two women by name in his journal and remembered them from Monterey when he served as Lieutenant and Commander of HMS Chatham under George Vancouver. Captain Broughton’s log from HMS Providence provides one of the final accounts of Lady Washington nearing the end of its Hawaiian Odyssey in 1796.

Captain Constance Allen, Grays Harbor Historical Seaport Authority

Aberdeen, Washington built a replica of the brig, Lady Washington, in 1987 at the same time Laurence Darcy constructed a topsail ketch, Hawaiian Chieftain, in Lahaina. These two vessels now serve the west coast of the United States providing three hour sailing programs for school children, preserving the knowledge of sailing ships, and keeping alive the stories and lessons of early contact between Yankee sailors and the nations of the Pacific. Native tribes and tall ship sailors have found common ground in respect for traditional ways using the ships to recreate trade events and participate in reconciliation ceremonies. What better place to continue this mission than Hawai‘i?

Elke Sundstrom, University of Victoria, Esundstr[at]uvic.ca

In the early historic period from 1780 to 1870's Native Hawaiians and some Native Pacific Islanders from the South Pacific were recruited to work in the Northwest of Canada and the U.S. A few families both in the native communities and some Europeans with Native Hawaiian descent kept an ancestry record. The Kingdom of Hawaii also gave some South Pacific Islanders citizenship and were allowed to be recruited as citizens of the Kingdom of Hawaii to go northwest and on ships were registered as Native Hawaiians. Ships also brought other Pacific Islanders to the Northwest Coast who often adopted European names or gave themselves new names. DNA has advanced and would provide a more accurate record of ancestry but is complicated by government policies in both Canada and the US. Blood Quantum in the US and complicated native ancestry rules in Canada make DNA not a favourable option. Also DNA from Native communities collected by some university researchers in the past was abused resulting in studies that were not part of the original research project adds to the reluctance of providing DNA. DNA is also used to understand specific illnesses and predispositions to illnesses in communities. More research in native communities is required using advanced DNA technology as historic records give only a partial answer. Kim Tallbear suggests that young Native Americans also be encouraged to study biological sciences and DNA technologies to advance scientific knowledge in their communities.

Suzanne S. Finney, MAHHI Foundation, Finney[at]mahhi.org

Finding experiential learning opportunities to use as teaching tools for archaeology classes can be understandably challenging. This paper offers one example of experiential learning from the 38th voyage of the Charles W. Morgan which took place this past summer, and what can be transmitted to classes from the experience about topics including archaeology, whaling, and 19th century sailing.
The Charles W. Morgan is the last 19th century American whaling vessel still afloat. Built in 1841, the whaler completed 37 voyages in 80 years. In the 20th century the Charles W. Morgan was moved to Mystic, Connecticut and is now a primary attraction of Mystic Seaport. Recently restored for sailing, the 38th voyage of the Charles W. Morgan took place this past summer. The voyage was an opportunity for scholars, artists, writers and researchers to glimpse the world of whaling by sailing on the vessel during its voyage around southern New England.

Steve Price, Hawai‘i Undersea Research Lab. stevenpr[at]hawaii.edu

In 2013 the Hawai‘i Undersea Research Lab was again facing heavy funding challenges. In an effort to confront this problem head on, the team resurrected some old technology and brought back into service the LRT-30a. The Launch, Recovery, and Transport (LRT) is a pontoon barge which had been high, dry, and idle for 17 years. The platform was used in the early years of the program for launching their submersibles before the arrival of their research ship, the Kai‘imi‘kai o‘ Kanaloa. Now it was back in operation with an almost entirely new team operating it. The HURL team was eventually able to pull off a remarkable dive season that included 32 submersible dives in a 47 day season. Several of these dives were Maritime Heritage dives that led to significant historic discoveries and several others resulted in finding other cultural artifacts that were that were representative of life in Honolulu from the 1880s to the 1930s. Now that this platform has returned to operation perhaps it can be used in the future in other applications to support Marine Archaeological and Maritime Heritage projects at various depths.

Terry Kerby, University of Hawai‛i Undersea Research Lab, tkerby[at]hawaii.edu

On August 1st 2013 the Hawai‛i Undersea Research Lab (HURL), funded by NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, discovered the I-400, a giant Japanese submarine capable of carrying and launching three Seiran bombers from its watertight hangar and deck catapult. The Sentoku class boats were by far the largest submarines of their day, and represented surprising design advancements and capability. Only a few, however, were launched, their service coming so late in the war that they never saw actual combat. Captured by the US Navy, I-400 and I-401 were brought to Pearl Harbor for study, and then sunk in target exercises south of O‛ahu. This presentation features the collaborative mission to find the I-400, and HURL’s unique capacity for discovery in the deep ocean.

Hans Van Tilburg and Jim Delgado (NOAA ONMS) and Terry Kerby (HURL), Hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

On August 1, 2013 in the deep dark waters off the south shore of O‘ahu, another small piece of the Pacific’s maritime history came to light. The wreck of the cable ship Dickenson was discovered by explorers in the Pisces V manned research submersible. The University of Hawai‘i Undersea Research Lab’s (HURL) maritime heritage dives were funded by NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration. The 2013 objectives were to assess a number of unidentified sonar targets during the cruise, and Dickenson was one of several sites investigated in August. The ship was part of communication and World War II history. The 6,912-mile Pacific cable network (San Francisco-Honolulu-Midway-Guam-Luzon), completed in 1903, was an accomplishment of immense importance, particularly to Hawai‘i and to Midway Island, where a remote cable station was established. Dickenson, launched by the Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, Pennsylvania in 1923, was built to supply the Midway station and service the cable. In between trips, the owners contracted locally, shipping cattle inter island. With the outbreak of World War II, the ship made a critical run to Fanning Island to evacuate British telecommunications employees. Dickenson sailed into Honolulu Harbor with the evacuees on the morning of December 7, 1941. Then, refitted, armed and chartered by the US Navy, the fleet auxiliary vessel (renamed) USS Kailua IX-71 served again to supply Midway Island. In 1943 USS Kailua joined the Seventh Fleet at Pago Pago, American Samoa, laying cables, anti-submarine nets and buoys in Papau New Guinea and elsewhere in the South Pacific. Following the war there was little need for the vessel, though, and aging ship was towed to sea and sent to Davy Jones by a torpedo from USS Apogon SS-308 on February 7, 1946. Subsequent research and site images highlight these elements of Pacific history.

Blade Shepard-Jones, USCG, Razor513[at]hotmail.com

An underwater P-40 wreck was recently rediscovered and investigated in Kailua Bay. A team guided by Aviation Archaeologist, Dave Trojan spent months searching for and documenting the aircraft crash site. The team also including sport diver, Blade Shepherd-Jones, and archivist, Craig Fuller of Aviation Archaeological Investigation and Research (AAIR) discovered several important artifacts. Among the wreckage from the plane, the Allison V-1710 engine and landing gear were identified. The team documented the site with photographs and video. Using military archives and oral histories, the wreck was identified as a very rare P-40B or C model that most likely crashed early in the war. Pyramid Rock Beach located on Marine Corp Base Hawai’i is a popular place for surfing. Rumors of wrecks under the waters have been mentioned, including a P-40 airplane buried in the sand. Supposedly the prop has injured surfers in the past. In 1998 Army Pilot Telford Koon contacted Cultural Resources Manager, MCB Hawaii and Hans Van Tilburg, NOAA Maritime Heritage Coordinator, explaining that it was his P-40K. So far no crash card exists for Koon’s wreck. According to his oral description, he had engine failure and ditched his plane off Pyramid Rock Beach on May 8, 1943. He was part of the 73rd Fighter Squadron of the 318th Fighter Group. While mostly buried in the sand, witnesses have mentioned the P-40K when uncovered is in excellent condition.

George Huss and Sean Dimoff, University of Hawai‘i Marine Option Program, Sdimoff[at]Hawaii.edu

Pearl Harbor has served as a pivotal foothold for the US in the Pacific. As a result of this boom in maritime activity, many shipwrecks are scattered throughout the islands. Interestingly, little research has been done to fully investigate these shipwrecks due to underwater archaeology being a fairly new academic pursuit. Since 2009, the University of Hawaii at Manoa’s Marine Option Program partnership with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration’s Maritime Heritage Program has conducted several maritime archaeological surveys on submerged wreck sites. In the Summer 2014 season, Marine Option Program students participated in a maritime archaeological survey on what is believed to be a World War II-era Landing Ship Medium located outside of the Pearl Harbor Channel in 40ft of water.

Kelly Gleason, NOAA ONMS, Kelly.gleason[at]noaa.gov

In August of 2014, a team of NOAA maritime archaeologists discovered and documented a P-40K Warhawk in the shallow reef off of Midway Atoll. Archaeological survey at the site, combined with oral histories and archival research enabled the team to identify the aircraft, its pilot and the story behind its crash near Eastern Island in February of 1943. This historic USAAF aircraft tells an important story about the wartime activities at Midway Atoll, as well as the record breaking flight that the 78th Fighter Squadron successfully accomplished from Kaua‘i to Midway Atoll in January of 1943. The P-40 pilot, Lt. Ray Obenshain, Jr., survived this accident at Midway Atoll and went on to have a distinguished career in the USAAF. This sunken aircraft is the third submerged historic aircraft discovered at Midway Atoll to date. There are dozens more reported lost around the Atoll that speak to Midway’s rich heritage. These sites are windows into America’s aviation history, as well as poignant reminders of the sacrifice and bravery of the young airmen who fought battles in which they were terribly outmatched by their Japanese counterparts during World War II. The P-40K Warhawk at Midway Atoll is an important snapshot of history at this remote island in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. Working with National Fish and Wildlife Staff at Midway Atoll, NOAA archaeologists have ongoing plans to survey for the dozens of other aircraft remaining on the seafloor there.

Stephen Matadobra, University of Hawai‘i Marine Option Program, Smatadob[at]Hawaii.edu

Located on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi at the Puʻukohola Heiau National Historic Site, a sacred Hawaiian shark heiau named Hale O Kapuni once stood. Its existence has been lost over time due to nearby construction, tsunamis and runoff. Hale O Kapuni, a structure once only visible at low tide, was used as a dedication to sharks, and is now completely submerged due to sedimentation from the construction of the nearby harbor. The construction of the harbor nearby in 1957 and development up the ridge of Hale o Kapuni has led to massive sedimentation and the covering of the heiau. A survey done in 1994 by the ACOE revealed some anomalies, but the heaiu’s exact location was yet to be determined. In March of 2014 a noninvasive survey was conducted to map and locate the Heiau. The rediscovery and mapping of this sacred site is important to aid in the continued cultural preservation of Hawaiʻi. With the use of a strata box echosounder as a sub bottom profiler, and a small ridged inflatable surveys were conducted. The surveys consisted of 18, 150m transects in the small bay. Out of the 18 surveys done, there were 18 anomalies found. Sixteen anomalies were found in a 20m by 13m rectangle, 100ft from the old rock leaning post. The data suggests that the heiau could be present at this location. With the sub bottom profiler data combined with the anecdotal evidence and the 1994 ACOE and 2004 NPS surveys. There seems to suggest that a heiau or large submerged object could be present. Further research needs to be done possibly with invasive cores to see if the heiau is present. A push for more local and cultural knowledge should be also researched to locate this and other possible submerged heiau.

Elizabeth Briggs, University of Cambridge, Ehb33[at]cam.ac.uk

Ancient and historical shipwrecks are notoriously difficult to provenance as their cargos are often from a multitude of origins. Recent developments in archaeological science allow us to explore new ways of determining provenance. With the development of single compound stable isotope analysis, archaeological scientists are often able to determine the origins of organic remains found on archaeological sites. This paper explores the possibility of using Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Analysis in order to determine the provenance of the wooden hull elements of the Queen Anne’s Revenge Shipwreck. A long-standing controversy rages around this archaeological project, with one camp claiming that this wreck is indeed that of Blackbeard the Pirate, while the opposing camp claims that it is simply a historic wreck, the origins of which cannot be proven. This paper argues that if the timbers from the hull structure can be proven to have been grown in southern France (the known location of the construction of the Queen Anne’s Revenge) the case for the former camp will be greatly strengthened. In addition, the implications for these types of provenance studies on organic materials from underwater marine environments could have far-reaching applications.

Noelani Arista, University of Hawai‘i, arista[at]hawaii.edu

This paper begins with a critical question: how is it possible that the largest indigenous language "archive" in the United States and perhaps the Pacific, has been ignored by scholars? It seeks to engage with the focus questions how did indigenous textual cultures emerge and interact with older knowledge systems while also problematizing the now nearly normative assumptions that inspire scholars’ search for “agency.” I argue briefly that although the search for agency does important work in decolonization, in other contexts, agency is also an effect of the archives’ minimalism. My question seeks to get closer to the heart of our assumptions about what it means to write “native history,” and works to reconstitute a research agenda that is more in line with the actual sources before us. This paper hopes to encourage lively discussion and questions in an effort to provide assistance to scholars who lack fluency in Hawaiian language, but would like techniques to assist them in engaging these resources or information about trained individuals who can provide additional support.

Brenden L. Bliss, Hawai‘i Pacific University, Bbliss[at]hpu.edu

This paper will discuss how World War II took a developing repair and support facility and turned it into one of the dominant factors of both military and civilian life in Hawai‘i. It will mainly focus on how the logistical and administrative components of the yard impacted business in Honolulu and daily life on the island of O‘ahu. Managing the complexities of a shipyard in an American territory located in a war zone placed unexpected burdens on its commander who for much of the war was Rear Admiral William R. Furlong. These duties may not have been experienced to the same extent by other flag officers in the Pacific, but were certainly understood by most civic or business leaders of the time. This included such things as employee housing, reliable employee transportation, entertainment facilities, law enforcement, segregation, employee childcare, selling of war bonds, awarding recognition and medals, involvement with civilian businesses and the Chamber of Commerce, balancing selective service needs versus yard efficiency and dealing with the military commander of the Territory on martial as well as civilian issues. Through the daily correspondence of Admiral Furlong one is able to see how the complicated management of the shipyard reflected the increased role that the installation played in the community during the Second World War.

Hans Van Tilburg, NOAA ONMS, Hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

The 2nd Asia-Pacific Regional Conference on Underwater Cultural Heritage (www.apconf.org) was held from May 12-16 at the University of Hawai‘i Manoa, hosted by the National Marine Sanctuary Foundation and the University of Hawai‘i Marine Option Program. The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, Bureau of Ocean Energy and Management, and UNESCO, among others, were major sponsors for the event. The APONF series addresses the need for comprehensive stewardship of marine and freshwater cultural resources. Government agencies, heritage groups, coastal zone managers, diving groups and other ocean users seek to formulate a better approach to investigating and managing our non-renewable underwater cultural heritage. More than 139 participants from 27 countries around the world joined together in Honolulu to discuss common research and preservation goals. The 2014 event: • addressed management and protection strategies of underwater cultural heritage in Asia and the countries of the Indian and Pacific Oceans in the 21st century; • facilitated regional cooperation through the development of academic and governmental networks in the Asia-Pacific region; • provided a forum for discussion of technical and ethical issues related to underwater cultural heritage and underwater archaeology; • freely distributed information across the region and worldwide. Conference papers were edited by the planning committee and published in the hard copy of the conference proceedings, and are also available online at the Museum of Underwater Archaeology (MUA) http://www.themua.org/. Despite our increasing ability to communicate electronically, nothing has yet replaced the satisfying experience of meeting colleagues face-to-face and sharing knowledge and cultural experiences related to the common goal of marine resource preservation. APCONF 2017 is currently being planned for Hong Kong.

Hans Van Tilburg, NOAA ONMS, Hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

Swains Island is a remote and relatively unknown low-lying coral atoll 220 nautical miles north of American Samoa. Once inhabited by people of the Tokelau archipelago, the island was noted by western whalers in the 1830’s, and finally claimed by a sailor from New York, Eli Hutchinson Jennings, in 1856. The copra plantation started by Jennings and his Samoan wife Malia lasted more than a century. Swains was annexed by the United States in 1925, and is managed by the Territory of American Samoa. The marine areas of Swains Island are now part of the National Marine Sanctuary system. Due to its remote and private character, the atoll has remained almost wholly uninvestigated until recent years. NOAA completed an archival background survey of Swains Island history in 2009, and an initial archaeological field survey in 2013. The survey work was featured in the Ocean Futures Society documentary “Swains Island – One of the Last Jewels of the Planet” featuring Jean-Michel Cousteau. The location is a time capsule of maritime heritage, a microcosm in a vast ocean. We are only beginning to understand the special role of Swains Island within the larger maritime landscape of voyaging and migration, Tokelauan and Samoan history, Western discoveries and whaling contacts, and the modernization of the Pacific.

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25th Annual Symposium, 2014

The 2014 ASIA-PACIFIC REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON UNDERWATER CULTURAL HERITAGE was held in Honolulu in May 2014. To accomodate this meeting there was no symposium iin 2014. Instead an informal dinner was held in February. To see the proceedings from the Asia-Pacific conference visit the following website:


24th Annual Symposium, February 16-18, 2013
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation

Trisha Kēhaulani Watson, President Honua Consulting, watson[at]honuaconsulting.com; www.honuaconsulting.com

Gone are the days of preservation that treats places and resources like museum pieces, the future of preservation requires serious dialogue and consideration of what preservation looks like among a living culture. This presentation will cover how historic resources can interact with Native Hawaiians in a manner that enhances traditional knowledges and practices. By reviewing specific case studies of research, consultation and outreach that have brought community and conservation together in a manner that enriched both community knowledge and the conservation initiative, we demonstrate a path forward that brings stakeholders together for the betterment of biocultural resources across Hawai`i.

Jason Jeremiah, Kamehameha Schools- Land Assets Division, jajeremi[at]ksbe.edu

The genealogies of the Hawaiian people recognize a shared ancestry with our islands and all the native life that exist upon them. Just as these natural elements have evolved together over many thousands of years to shape the unique native ecosystems and landscapes of Hawai‘i, so too have these native landscapes shaped our cultural identify, traditions, and practices as a people. Wahi kupuna or ancestral places, the reminding presence and essence of our kupuna, serve as the repositories of ancestral knowledge for us to learn from and strengthen our own identify in today’s world. Acknowledging the profound depths of these relationships, the vision of the Kamehameha Schools’ 2011 Natural Resources Management Plan and Cultural Resources Management Plan is “I Hawaiʻi no nā Hawaiʻi i ka ʻāina.” Hawaiians are Hawaiians because of the land. With holdings of over 365,000 acres on five islands, the land legacy of the Kamehameha Schools provides for our people a link to a chiefly lineage and the special relationship our ancestors had to these lands. We understand that these lands embody the cultural, spiritual, and natural wealth of our ancestors and hold the promise of our future. We recognize that the privilege of their conveyance into our Trust is associated with a kaumaha or profound responsibility to honor these ancestral connections to land and to care for the natural and cultural resources contained therein.

John N. (Jack) Kittinger, Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, Woods Institute for the Environment, jkittinger[at]gmail.com

Despite general recognition of the human role in the plight of the ocean, the vast majority of research focuses on the ecological rather than the human dimensions of marine ecosystems, limiting our understanding of viable solutions for managing cultural seascapes toward sustainability. Drawing on my own research on long-term relationships between coral reefs and communities in the Hawaiian Islands, I will present empirical historical reconstructions of human-environmental relationships that integrate archaeological data, historical archival information, and modern social ecological data on cultural seascapes. In particular, I highlight the role of cultural institutions in mediating human-environmental relationships, drawing on the notion of the longue durée, which ascribes an elevated importance to structures of human organization over events in understanding historical change. I will conclude by discussing how a deeper understanding of the past can be feasibly implemented in current management systems. Resource management in Hawai`i and the Pacific Islands is increasingly focused on incorporating local and customary governance approaches, but which depend on an understanding of social history of place, changes in local or customary practices, and their application in and influence on modern legal and policy contexts.

James P. Delgado, Director, NOAA’s Maritime Heritage Program, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, james.delgado[at]noaa.gov

NOAA's Maritime Heritage Program, part of the Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, has existed for over a decade, surveying and documenting lost ships and sharing these places and the stories of America's maritime past with the public. In 2010, MHP and ONMS formally adopted the concept of maritime cultural landscapes as a means of better documenting and understanding that heritage and sharing it with the public and partners who work with NOAA. The recent work of the program has also included more shipwreck surveys in Hawai`i and North Carolina, the documentation of a Civil War wreck off Texas, and ongoing work to help protect the wreck of RMS Titanic. New initiatives also include public outreach and education, including a partnership with Sony and Intel to connect five inner city youth with archaeology and history through "Project Shiphunt" at Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary in Michigan. This presentation will focus on MHP's recent work and plans for the future.

William J. Aila Jr., Chairperson, Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of Hawai`I, dlnr[at]hawaii.gov

Chairman Aila’s presentation will include Native Hawaiian perspectives on cultural resources (particularly cultural resources related to fishing), and the interactions and interconnections between land and ocean.

Hans Van Tilburg, maritime heritage coordinator, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

As part of its regular plan review, the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale Sanctuary is considering including maritime heritage resources as part of its preservation mandate. In partnership with the State, this would be the first time that shipwrecks and other historic properties were systematically inventoried and protected. Last year a sanctuary public working group was convened to compile recommendations for the management of these resources, and a preliminary maritime heritage action plan is currently being drafted. Meanwhile, sanctuary staff have submitted two related project grant proposals: 1) one-year Department of Defense Legacy (DoD) Program grant for “Characterization of Hawaiian Maritime Cultural Resources and Landscapes on O`ahu;” and 2) three-year Bureau of Ocean Energy and Management (BOEM) grant for “Maritime Cultural Resource Site Assessment in the Main Hawaiian Islands.” Both feature resource inventories and address aspects of Native Hawaiian cultural resources and historic (Western) submerged properties. This presentation will cover recent developments in the assessment and management of maritime heritage resources in Hawai`i.

John Jensen, Associate Professor Maritime Studies/Ocean Policy, Sea Education Association, jensenheritage[at]verizon.net

Over the past few years interest in the cultural landscapes have coalesced in the coastal and marine spatial planning and MPA communities. In Rhode Island, the use of a cultural landscape approach (CLA) revealed major new insights about the relationships between the state and the greater New England region and maritime activities. Building on and substantially expanding the scope of the work in Rhode Island, the Federal Advisory Committee of the NOAA National MPA System recommended the system wide adoption of CLA. This presentation introduces the CLA, describing its advantages as well the challenges associated with its implementation. CLA has particular value in integrating multiple disciplines and cultural perspectives and thus offers promising avenues for progress in maritime heritage in Hawai`i and across the country.

William Aila, Pua Aiu, Kehau Watson, Hans Van Tilburg, Jason Jeremiah, Jack Kittinger, etc.

Open discussion session with symposium presenters working in marine resource management in Hawai`i and the audience, exploring how we can better preserve our cultural connections to the sea, and protect cultural and historic properties in the marine setting from potential negative impacts.

Jim Mockford, Advisory Council Grays Harbor Historical Seaport, jim.mockford[at]wacom.com

At Ishinomaki, Japan there is a replica ship San Juan Bautista that survived the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami of March 11, 2011 and is now under renovation. San Juan Batista is also called Date Maru after Lord Date Masamune who sponsored construction of one of Japan’s first western-style ships and who sent his emissary Hasekura Tsunenaga from Japan to Mexico on October 28, 1613. The celebration of the 400th Anniversary of this Japanese maritime expedition will be held in the fall of 2013. In the aftermath of the tsunami of March 11, 2011 it was uncertain whether the replica ship or the town of Ishinomaki would survive at all. Ishinomaki reported in June 2011 a total of 3,097 deaths and 2,770 persons missing while 29,000 residents lost their homes. Amazingly, the construction of the original ship in 1613 also took place in the aftermath of a tsunami that occurred on December 2, 1611 and drowned over 5,000 people in the domain of Date Masamune. An official diary known as the “Sumpuki” written in 1612 by an aide to Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu recorded the gifts received from Date and news of the tremendous natural disaster, “yo ni tsunami to yu’u.” This show of loyalty from Date in the midst of tragedy may have influenced the Tokugawa Shogunate to grant permission for Date’s international voyage of 1613 even though Japan had embraced maritime restrictions as a national policy. This paper will examine the cultural landscape from which this rare maritime expedition sailed as the Tokugawa period was beginning to encapsulate Japan in isolationism that lasted until the arrival of Commodore Perry in 1853. This is a story of a community that is once again after 400 years is remaking a cultural landscape in a remarkable return to its maritime heritage.

Susan Lebo, Research Affiliate, Bishop Museum, salebo[at]earthlink.net

After annexing the Hawaiian Islands as a “Territory” of the United States in 1900, the U.S. Government sought control of the archipelago’s commercial fisheries. The “Organic Act” established the legal parameters for dismantling Hawai`i’s laws governing private rights to fisheries and fisheries management. As part of this process, detailed studies of the Hawaiian fisheries were undertaken between 1898 and 1905. Among the findings reported in 1901 was that whale, seal, otter, shark, pearl, and beche-de-mer represented important nineteenth-century commercial fisheries in the islands (Preliminary Report on an Investigation of the Fishes and Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands, David Starr Jordan and Barton Warren Evermann, 1901). This historical study examines these nineteenth-century commercial Hawaiian fisheries using data extracted from newspapers published in the islands between the 1830s and 1900. This historical survey involves fisheries activities conducted by Native Hawaiians, resident foreigners, and by non-resident foreigners (e.g., Bremen whaling crews). Some of the fisheries were exploited for local consumption while others mainly served Asian, American, European, or other foreign markets. Most fishing expeditions primarily targeted a single resource, such as the taking of humpback or sperm whales. Others, however, pursued diverse resource catches, including whale, seal, turtle, and shark.

Richard Gould, Professor (emeritus), Anthropology, Brown University, rgould49[at]gmail.com

The Anaconda Plan proposed by Gen. Winfield Scott during the decade before the Civil War envisioned a chain of Union coast defenses that would serve as bases to surround the emerging Confederacy and choke off supplies and support from the outside. Following an 1846 visit by Scott to Key West, construction began at what was to become the largest of these -- Fort Jefferson -- at Garden Key, 70 miles west of Key West. Its walls are estimated to contain about 14,000,000 bricks, and it was expected to mount over 300 cannons. Three anonymous shipwrecks nearby were studied in detail under the sponsorship of the National Park Service in 1989-1995, each of which contained building materials intended for the fort. These three shipwrecks bracketed the entire construction history of the fort from 1847 to 1869, allowing us to track the fort's development in detail. Although located deep within the Confederacy, Fort Jefferson remained in Union control throughout the Civil War, where its guns protected an anchorage containing vessels that could effectively dominate the Straits of Florida as part of the Union Blockade. No battles were fought there, but this Union outpost was a key element in the blockade that General Scott had originally planned.

Elke Sundstrom, Researcher, University of Victoria, esundstr[at]uvic.ca

Maquinna was the chief of the Nuu-chah-nulth people of Nootka Sound during the maritime fur trade in the 1780's to 1790's on the Pacific North West Coast. He was a powerful chief whose summer village Yuquot became an important anchorage in the European jockeying for power and commerce when the fur trade became significant. Yuquot became known as the Friendly Cove visited by James Cook, George Vancouver, Jon Perez ,John Meares and others. Meares recorded more than 50 ships trading with Maquinna one summer. Maquinna also played a key role in relations between the Spanish Envoy Juan Francisco de Bodega y Quadra and George Vancuver. Maquinna initiated trade for his own village and acted as middle man and wholesaler for the other tribes making impressive profits trading sea otter pelts for metal goods. This all temporarily came to a halt when he captured the Boston in 1803 and killed all of the crew except Jewett a metal worker and Thompson the sailmaker and kept them as slaves. A ship 2 years later approached Yuquot and Maquinna gave up the two captives despite of being tricked by Jewett. Jewett after being freed continued to trade with Maquinna until the decline of trade in the area. Trade was only possible in the summer month (May to October) due to a weather phenomenon occurring on central Vancouver Island in the winter when the Alaska Lows and the Subtropical Lows combine to create an intense low that brings extra tropical cyclones to the area with waves of 20-40 feet making trade hazardous and impossible.

Richard W. Rogers, Captain, Researcher, Sandwich Island Shipwreck Museum, plialoha[at]hula.net

On his last crossing to Manila, the galleon pilot noticed that the trade winds had become voggy about two weeks out of Acapulco. This year he chose a course that crossed the Pacific at about 20 degrees latitude. The way-finder had chosen to keep his voyaging canoe pointed as far to the east as possible on this trip up from Tahiti. He knew that he would soon find the home-star Hokule`a directly overhead within the next few nights. Then he can turn west. Two very different vessels piloted by two very similar men. What might have happened had these two vessels, their pilots and their cultures met? Indeed, what did happen?

Erik Denson, National Association of Black Scuba Divers, erik.c.denson[at]nasa.gov; www.divingwithapurpose.org; www.voyagetodiscovery.org

The National Association of Black Scuba Divers (NABS) was established in 1991 by Ric Powell and Dr A. Jose Jones. Ric Powell and Dr. Jones were two of the earliest African-Americans to become certified divers, and their collaboration resulted in the creation of NABS which purpose was to foster camaraderie among African American divers, and to address the unique problems and concerns of the African-American community. Since the formation of NABS, the organization has blossomed to over 2,000 members across the country and internationally. Members of NABS created the Diving With a Purpose (DWP) Underwater Archaeology program to provide highly trained underwater archaeology advocates, explorers and environmental stewards in support of maritime scientific and cultural expeditions worldwide and to concentrate on shipwrecks and other historic cultural sites not normally pursued by mainstream maritime archaeology (i.e. slave trade shipwrecks such as the Guerrero). NABS has also partnered with NOAA to develop the Voyage to Discovery website that tells the rich contributions of African Americans in Maritime History. NABS membership is open to anyone regardless of race, color, gender, handicap, or diving agency affiliation who share our love of the oceans and of the marine world. All who are pledged to protect, enjoy and help to conserve this marine environment with which we are entrusted are also welcomed to join with us. NABS mission is to create a network of people and resources that provide educational experiences that enhance and promote an appreciation of diving and an awareness of the aquatic environment. This network will build unity and camaraderie to transfer the legacy to future generations.

Deloris Guttman and Jenna Robinson, African American Diversity Cultural Center Hawai`i, O`ahu, aadcch[at]aadcch.org; www.aadcch.org

West Loch Disaster on May 21, 1944 was the second tragedy two and half years after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In an area of the vast naval base known as West Loch Peninsula, almost three dozen large landing ships sat lashed together in a half-dozen groups, brimming with fuel, ammunition and other material. It was a relatively quiet Sunday with last minutes preparations on the way for voyage to the Mariana Islands. A Black unit, the 29th Chemical Decontamination Company from the nearby army base, Schofield Barracks was loading Landing Ship Tank (LST) 353 with ammunition, gas and supplies for code name “Operation Forager.” About 3:08, an explosion on LST 353 ripped open spreading fuel, ammunition, red-hot shrapnel and flames hurtled toward neighboring LSTs, setting off new fires. Some sailors fought the flames, others tried to get their LSTs moving away from the fire-engulfed vessels. Other escaping ships and arriving rescue vessels ran over men who had jumped into the water. The explosions threw body parts and chunks of wood and metal hundreds of feet. A few of the LSTs, including 353, start drifting uncontrollably. One would have rammed an ammo ship moored at the ammunition depot dock if another vessel had not managed to steer it away. Before the day ended, over 160 men were dead and near 400 were wounded. Six of the landing ships were destroyed and several others damaged. The mission of the Chemical Decontamination Unit was to decontaminate men and equipment after an enemy chemical attack, but the soldiers were a handy source of manual labor during wartime. For Blacks serving in segregated units during war time were relegated to less glorious tasks such as stevedore laborers, servants, mess men, gravediggers and other dirty jobs. Although these men were plagued by Jim Crow in the military, they performed their duties heroically and courageously for America and freedom. What makes the loss of life at West Loch tragic situation worse, the Department of Defense kept this information classified until 1960. The mothers and wives of these young men never knew what happen to their loved ones. The only notification anyone received from the department was notice with the word "Missing." These men and hundreds of others lost their lives that day defending and protecting America.

Matt Ross, commercial aquarium fisherman, O`ahu, rossmatt[at]hawaii.edu

O`ahu is unique in its underwater geology relative to the younger islands in the Hawaiian chain. Because of its age, it is surrounded by broad expanses of reef that lie within the range of SCUBA divers, in some cases extending up to three miles from shore. Moreover, due to the island's aviation history during the Second World War, a significant number of aircraft have been lost in our waters. However, due to their large size and relative inaccessibility, most of O`ahu's reefs (and the archaeological resources they contain) remain unexplored by both the scientific community and recreational divers. As such, much remains to be discovered. Outlined here are two previously unknown WWII airplane wrecks: a P-40 Warhawk and a TBF Avenger, both discovered during 2012. While the identity of the P-40 remains unknown, the TBF is presumed to be USN #48097, lost in a training accident on May 21, 1945. Both wrecks were found by the author while diving for tropical fish, and were documented with the assistance of Jeff Milisen (http://milisenphotography.yolasite.com/).

Blade Shepherd-Jones, Diver, razor513[at]hotmail.com

In 2010 there was a claim on Scuba Board about four World War II tanks in Pōka`i Bay, Wai`anae. Rumors were erroneously claiming them as M3 Stuart Light Tanks or Japanese Tanks. During World War II Pōka`i Bay was used by the Army as an ammunition depot and amphibious assault training ground. While snorkeling the area in 2012 the “tanks” were identified as Holt 5 Ton Prime Movers. Furthermore an additional Holt 5 Ton tractor was found, possible tractor debris, and 1920-30’s era tires. This area would be a great location for a proper survey. Pyramid Rock Beach located on Marine Corp Base Hawai`i is used by the Marines as an amphibious training site. There is an LVTP-5 facing away from the beach, half buried in sand. The reason for the craft being underwater and the exact date (before 1971) continues to be a mystery.

Taylor G. Shedd, student, University of Hawai`i Diving Safety Office, tshedd[at]hawaii.edu

Hawai`i’s long seafaring history has left a legacy of shipwrecks beneath the waves. Many of these around the island of Hawai`i reflect fishing (sampan) and plantation-era (local steamship) activities. Maritime archaeology provides a tool for documenting these sites and understanding a part of our special maritime heritage. In August 2012, University of Hawai`i Marine Option Program divers, led by NOAA’s Maritime Heritage Program staff, spent ten days re-surveying the wreck site of the old Inter Island Navigation Company vessel SS Kaua`i at Mahukona. The ship went onto the reef in a late December storm in 1913, and was declared a total loss. The initial archaeological study was completed in 1993. The 2012 survey provides a snapshot of how these wrecks change over time. The survey also provided a glimpse of plantation-era Hawai`i. With the completion of the Hawaiian Railroad in 1882, Mahukona (entry port for the Hawaiian Kingdom) became the primary transshipment point for all of the surrounding plantations. The wreck of the SS Kaua`i, the submerged mooring system and wharf remains at Mahukona, and sister plantation steamship wrecks (SS Maui at Makalawena) all provide a glimpse of the plantation period which shaped our island society more than 100 years ago.

Kelly Gleason, Maritime Archaeologist, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, kelly.gleason[at]noaa.gov

On July 5, 2012, a team of six maritime archaeologists embarked upon a NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) sponsored 21-day expedition to Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands aboard the NOAA ship Hi’ialakai. The main objectives of the maritime heritage expedition were exploration, survey and interpretation of the diverse archaeological resources in these remote Pacific atolls. Underwater mapping, video and photography were methods used to share these maritime heritage stories with the public in a variety of ways. These shipwreck sites tell fascinating stories about hundreds of years of seafaring throughout these atolls. The development of a film, site plans and ongoing efforts to protect these sites will help the public touch and see the history of this very remote and special place. The 2012 team included scientists from NOAA, the National Park Service and Flinders University, all working together to accomplish management goals in this remote part of the Hawaiian archipelago. In addition to accomplishing 2012 project objectives, the team had the opportunity to survey a newly discovered sunken aircraft site at Midway Atoll and explore for new sunken aircraft sites using remote sensing survey methods. This presentation will discuss the results of the 2012 maritime archaeology expedition to Papahānaumokuākea and the continued efforts to interpret and deliver these sites to the public.

Steven Price, Maintenance Chief, Co-pilot, Researcher, Hawai`i Undersea Research Lab, O`ahu, stevenpr[at]hawaii.edu

The Hawai`i Undersea Research Lab has been conducting their submersible “test and trial” dives off South O`ahu for nearly three decades. While doing these critical dives the team has multi-tasked in making dozens of historical discoveries, ranging from Japanese submarines to Hawaiian Inter-island steamers to 1930s aircraft. What most people are unaware of is the vast and diverse number of early vehicles the lab has encountered. This presentation features HURL's collection of mostly motorcars from as early as 1917 to the late 1940s. Some are remarkably preserved while others are barely recognizable remnants of their previous lives. This opens a portal to transportation in Hawai`i during this era. The surprising number, variety, condition, and dispersal will certainly leave people wondering about the mystery of “who? when? why? and how?” these vehicles ended up in this museum at the bottom of the sea.

Suzanne S. Finney, Archaeologist, Palau Historic Preservation Office, Republic of Palau, suzanne.finney[at]gmail.com
Pat Scannon, Team Leader, The BentProp Project, www.bentprop.org

In March 2012 a group of fishermen in the Republic of Palau spotted what they thought was a plane in about 40 feet of water. They contacted a local dive company who in turn contacted the team from the BentProp Project that just happened to be conducting their annual mission to look for crash sites and MIA remains both underwater and on land throughout the islands of Palau. Through their experience and connections they were able to ID the plane and find out what happened to the pilot, who survived the crash. The dive shop also contacted the Palau Historic Preservation Office, which is charged with preserving and protecting the historical and cultural heritage of Palau, including underwater sites. The archaeologist went to the site to record the features and the office requested that a moratorium be placed on diving at the site so that this unique and largely undisturbed artifact is protected until a proper management plan is put in place. That moratorium took affect within two weeks of the finding of the plane. As a relic of the war, Palauans have mixed reactions concerning its preservation, since it is a legacy from the outside and not part of the traditional culture. The protection of historic material in Palau continues to be challenging. This presentation discusses the amazing story behind the crash as well as current efforts to record and protect the site.

Chris Woolaway, Vice-President, Friends of Falls of Clyde, cwoolaway[at]friendsoffallsofclyde.org

The Falls of Clyde just celebrated her 134th birthday. On November 18 of this year, she will celebrate 50 years in Hawai’i serving in her current career as a keeper of our maritime history as a museum ship. Much work is ahead and to do that much effort, patience and passion for the Board and for the community will need to be called upon. Our presentation will focus on where she is and what the challenges are on her immediate horizon. Captain Klebingat when he was her chief mate recalled : “The Clyde’s Scottish skipper at times, when the ship was going at a good clip, 14 knots or so, he would stand at the weather rail, pat the rail, and say, ‘Be good, little girrul, there is another mile left in you’.” The past 50 years would prove the Captain correct. We hope to help give her many more miles.

Kevin P. McDonald, Assistant Professor Department of History, Loyola Marymount University, kevin.mcdonald[at]lmu.edu

This paper focuses on the role of maritime alliances between Anglo-American and Polynesian seafarers from 1769-1798. Relationships between and among Islanders and Anglo-American seafarers were not necessarily forged along national or cultural lines, and interesting forms of cross-cultural re-fashioning emerged on and below the decks of sailing ships and on the beaches of numerous Pacific islands. In particular, this paper will focus on the scientific and imperial mission to transplant breadfruit from the Pacific islands to the West Indies. In order to complete this enterprise, imperial Britons had to first appropriate native knowledge and bio-regimes, and found willing and active participants in individuals like Pappo, a native Tahitian. In the Anglo-American imagination, Pacific breadfruit would fuel West Indian slave cultivators of sugar, which in turn fueled the early industrial labor force in England: thus, a global food chain forged from Africa to the West Indies, and from Tahiti to Manchester. While the intended nutritional benefits of the breadfruit were not immediate, the early trickle of oceanic and cultural crossings of Atlantic and Pacific worlds by native Polynesians and Anglo-American sailors, whalers, and beachcombers would become a deluge in the nineteenth century in the age of industrial whaling and expanding missionary activity. This paper is based on research in American and British archives and provides a fresh and innovative perspective to published documents and sources in English and French. In addition, under the aegis of the Sea Education Association (www.sea.edu), I will be part of a research voyage crew sailing in French Polynesia in January 2013. The project focuses on many relevant conference themes, including indigenous and maritime cultural landscapes, African Americans in maritime history, and maritime heritage in the Pacific (and Atlantic) worlds. As such, I believe it will make an excellent addition to the conference program.

Pete Nuttall, PhD candidate, Victoria University of Wellington, hibiscus[at]wave.co.nz; www.sailingforsustainability.org

The great Drua or Waqa Tabu of central Oceania are widely recognised as the greatest of the Oceanic seafaring vessels; massive battleships capable of carrying more than 200 warriors at speeds of 15 knots or more and of sailing within three points off the wind. Built without recourse to metal, large fleets were built on the tiny limestone islands of the Southern Lau group by Fijian, Tongan and Samoan craftsmen and from there distributed throughout central Oceania. Creations of advanced technological ability, masterpieces of aero and hydro-dynamic design, the drua were more than mere transporters; they were the object and focus of complex and widespread networks of trade and exchange. The origin of this remarkable design is disputed with varying academic sources claiming Fijian designers (drua), Tongan (kalia) and Samoan (‘alia). The oceanic lateen rig and sail is identical to that of the Micronesian ‘flying proa’. Although all sources claim a Micronesian origin of this sail, described by the Italian jet engineer Marchi as the most efficient ever designed, this isn’t conclusively proved, and it could have had a south-north transfer. The drua is still to be found throughout central Oceania - on letterheads, stamps, coins, coats-of-arms, tee-shirts, phone boxes, government, church and business logos - everywhere except on the water where they belong. The Fiji Islands Voyaging Society is spearheading a renaissance of interest in these remarkable craft. Our research over the past three years has highlighted the scattered written record and highlighted both areas of consensus and divergence amongst the various historical commentators. In November 2011, FIVS, with financial support from the Oceanic Centre of Art, Culture and Pacific Studies at USP, undertook a field research voyage to the southern Lau group to collect the remaining cultural heritage record of the Mataisau and Lemaki, the hereditary boat building clans. We found that a vibrant cultural record still remains, although in a fragile and vulnerable state with Traditional Knowledge holders now comprising a handful of elders. The field research is believed to be the first where native Lauan’s went to learn from their own and all records were recorded only in Lauan dialect. Previously unrecorded information on the tabetebete construction techniques of the giant drua and the laca (sail) was found. Waqa Tabu were often used as crypts for dead chiefs and there is tantalising leads to drua buried on the tops of limestone islands, in caves and even a sunken battlefleet. There are numerous issues of cultural significance and protocol to be transversed before further archaeological examination of these leads can be pursued and Fiji will need collaboration with leading archaeological experts in this critical endeavour.

Douglas Inglis, Texas A&M University, Department of Anthropology, douglas.inglis[at]tamu.edu

The most profound examples of Indonesian ship iconography are found on the 9th century Borobudur monument in central Java. Although the eleven vessels featured in Borobudur's bas-reliefs represent extinct watercraft, we can identify elements in their design that persisted independently as Indonesian watercraft evolved, including outriggers, bipod masts, canted rectangular sails, and quarter rudders. Because of their detail and unique status, the reliefs play an important role in debates over trade and expansion in Indonesia, India and Southeast Asia. However, they have not received the rigorous examination they deserve, and are most often discussed without regard for their narrative context. The Borobudur ships are very technical depictions, and contain data about rigging, rope use, rowing configurations and outrigger construction. Despite their detail, the Borobudur vessels should be interpreted cautiously, not as blueprints. They are illustrations, and contain deliberate distortion. Researchers have attempted both paper and physical reconstructions, but these either interpret the reliefs too literally or draw too heavily on modern ethnographic examples. Scholars have made a variety of assertions about how the vessels might have built, how they were used, where they originated, and what events are actually depicted the panels. These dialogues seldom acknowledge that the Borobudur ships are part of a larger religious narrative which provides a very specific context for each vessel. The stories provide important clues as to where each vessel was headed, who was aboard, and what is happening on deck. This paper will explore the shortfalls of literal interpretation and highlight the importance of placing the Borobudur vessels in their narrative framework.

Hans Van Tilburg, Maritime Heritage Coordinator, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

In response to the international implementation of the 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, UNESCO organized a capacity-building six-week foundational class-room and in-water training course for resource managers. The first series of courses (2009-2011) focused on the Asia-Pacific region, and were sponsored by the Royal Government of Norway, supported by ICOMOS and ICUCH, and hosted by Thailand’s Underwater Archaeology Division of the Fine Arts and the UCH training Center in Chanthaburi. This regional effort ultimately led to three basic foundation courses, two advanced UCH courses, one international exchange project, and a comprehensive UCH field manual published by UNESCO. Seventy students from 17 different countries completed the training. The most recent Foundation course, supported by Spain, the Netherlands, Cuba, and the Jamaican National Heritage Trust, recently concluded in November in Kingston, Jamaica. This presentation highlights these efforts at international capacity building for the underwater cultural heritage field.

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23rd Annual Symposium, February 17-20, 2012
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Terry Kerby, Operations Director and Chief Pilot, Hawaii Undersea Research Lab (HURL), O`ahu

Five Japanese midget subs deployed by 1larger I-class submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy participated in the daring attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7th, 1941. The Hawai`i Undersea Research Lab located two of these subs in deep water off the south shore of O`ahu. The “three-piece-sub” site was originally discovered in 1992, but only recently confirmed as one of the five Special Attack Unit ko-hyoteki. The sub sunk by the USS Ward on the morning of December 7th, or “Ward’s midget sub,” was discovered in 2002. This presentation features the discovery, archaeological assessment and monitoring efforts surrounding these sites and their changing status over time.

Ray Boland, Unit Diving Supervisor, NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, O`ahu

Hawaii’s underwater geology does not have a large amount of shallow water within scuba diving depths when compared to continental shelves. Because of this steep drop off, a large amount of true wrecks are found in water beyond most conventional and even technical scuba diving ranges. Wrecks must “land” in a narrow depth margin where they would be undisturbed by wave action and not destroyed, not salvaged from the shallows or in water too deep to dive. With a few exceptions, namely 6 planes, 3 amtracs, and 5-8 vessels, there are few true wrecks that a diver can visit when the ratio of wrecks and wrecks shallow enough to dive is considered. It is therefore exciting when a true wreck is found in technical diving depths and a modern one at that. The F/V Friendship grounded in shallow water off of Kewalo basin on October 24, 1994 and subsequently sank under tow on November 2, 1994. Its location was relatively unknown until being stumbled upon by Bill Mason in 2009. Subsequent dives fixed the location of this relatively unknown wreck for recreational tech divers. The Friendship is interesting in that it is a true wreck and for its biological community as well.

Steven Price, Researcher, Hawaii Undersea Research Lab (HURL), O`ahu

The Hawaii Undersea Research Lab recently made two more historic deep sea discoveries: the gunboat USS Bennington and the submarine USS S-4. These two vessels, separated by only a few miles, were found only days apart, located south of Oahu during the HURL submersible’s "test and trial" dives. The Bennington and S-4 both suffered tragic accidents roughly a century ago, far away from their final resting places. Both vessels were subsequently salvaged from their respective disasters, rising for second careers and also provide evolutionary advancements to shipboard procedure and damage control, and to submarine escape and rescue. This is the story of the USS Bennington and S-4, their crews, their disasters, resurrection, their second chance, and their recent discovery deep in Hawaiian waters.

William Mason, Explorer’s Club (Southwest Chapter Assistant Chairman), Albuquerque NM

A largely unexplored zone exists between the depths of 130 and 500 feet along the Hawaiian Islands shoreline because of two primary factors. First, the maximum certification depth for non-technical scuba divers is 130 feet. Second, the typical minimum dwell depth for submersibles is around 500 feet, due to the challenges of sea state and near-shore vessel traffic*. Closed Circuit Rebreathers (CCR) offer a silver bullet for the depth range of 130 to 500 feet because of their high efficiency, long run time, and reduced decompression obligation. A brief slideshow will outline the discovery of several shipwrecks and war materiel around Oahu using CCR.

Keoki Stender, Diver/Owner, www.MarinelifePhotography.com, O`ahu

Artificial reefs, wrecks, and other man-made objects are of great value to divers and marine life. While many divers appreciate the history or aesthetics of a given site, others are intrigued by various forms of marine life which call these structures home.

Hans Van Tilburg, Archaeologist/Historian, NOAA Office of Marine Sanctuaries, O`ahu

Hawai`i has a long history of continuous maritime activity, and therefore possesses many submerged archaeological sites like ship and aircraft wrecks. Records like the Pacific Commercial Advertiser and Thrum’s Hawaiian Annual describe hundreds of private and commercial vessel losses in the Hawaiian Islands. The naval inventory alone features over 80 US ships and submarines, and almost 1,500 naval aircraft lost at sea. Not only can shipwrecks and other submerged resources provide historians and archaeologists with a unique record of the past, they can also be of great value to both commercial and non-commercial ocean users, including recreational divers, fishermen, and others. And yet, there is no complete list of known shipwreck sites in Hawaii. The partial information that exists has only come together in a more “organic” fashion.

Della Scott-Ireton, Director Northwest Region, Florida Public Archaeology Network

Sport divers generally are very interested in shipwrecks and in the work of underwater archaeologists, and often want to get involved in research and investigation. Training programs that enable divers to effectively volunteer on archaeological projects have been around for years and have proven extremely effective in promoting the goals and value of scientific inquiry while enabling the diving public to participate. The problem is that, once trained, divers want to help and often there are no projects in progress for them to work on. Divers can lose interest, become disillusioned with archaeology or, worse, seek out commercial salvage projects. The Florida Public Archaeology Network (FPAN) is embarking on a new program in public outreach and education in underwater archaeology to address this need. The Submerged Sites Education and Archaeological Stewardship program, known by its acronym SSEAS, is intended to train sport divers in the methods of non-disturbance archaeological recording and then give these trained divers a mission. This paper will present this new program, will discuss methods used in Florida to engage and educate sport divers, and will describe how SSEAS-trained divers can effectively participate in the management and protection of the underwater cultural heritage.

Elizabeth Briggs, Underwater Field Technician, University of Edinburgh and Underwater Archaeology Branch, North Carolina

This presentation examines Public Outreach opportunities in conjunction with the use of cathodic protection on submerged metal artifacts. As a case study we will look at the work conducted by the Underwater Archaeology Branch of North Carolina on wreck 31CR314, believed to be the remains of Blackbeard's flagship, Queen Anne's Revenge. This wreck generates not only a significant amount of public interest but an almost overwhelming number of artifacts to conserve. In order to meet these challenges, the team has found ways to maximize laboratory space and allow for interested members of the public to enjoy this fascinating shipwreck. We explore what can be done with these artifacts, and new ways in which we can allow the public access to this historical treasure during the early stages of the conservation process.


NOAA’s Office of Marine Sanctuaries considers maritime heritage resources like shipwrecks to have considerable value to the community on a number of different levels: as unique archaeological sites, as markers of historic meaning, and as recreational diving destinations (to name a few). Several units within NOAA’s sanctuary system work in close collaboration with dive shops. Sport divers receive internationally-recognized training from NOAA archaeologists in wreck site surveying techniques. Public access to dive sites is supported, and even enhanced by site mooring programs, virtual “live dive” events online, interpretive materials, and shipwreck heritage “trails.” The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary is currently going through a management plan review process. Part of that process includes the consideration of maritime heritage resources. How has the diving industry been engaged in this process? What can an agency like NOAA do to promote the social and economic benefits of diving on shipwrecks in Hawaii?

Jacob Vandor, Student/Diver, University of Hawai`i Marine Option Program, O`ahu

In June 2011 NOAA’s Office of Marine Sanctuaries and the University of Hawaii’s Marine Option Program completed a survey of sunken World War II-era aircraft and shipwrecks along Maui’s southern coast. The two-week survey builds upon a longstanding collaboration between NOAA and the University of Hawaii in providing students with hands-on training in maritime archaeology surveying techniques. The survey team produced scaled drawings and took photographs of six wreck sites, including an unidentified sailing vessel; a carrier-based dive bomber (SB2C-1C Helldiver); a carrier-based fighter plane (F6F Hellcat); and three amphibious assault vehicles (LVT-4 and LVTA-4s), two with mounted with 75mm howitzers. This presentation presents an overview of the 2011 maritime survey class.

Susan R. Edwards, Colleen M. Beck, and Maureen L. King, Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas NV

Question: What do Liberty ships, munitions, and seismic detection have in common? Answer: All three are related to early efforts to differentiate the seismic signature of nuclear detonations from natural seismic events as part of Project Vela. This research program was established by the Secretary of Defense in September 1959 as negotiations were underway to curtail the testing of nuclear weapons. Assigned to the Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Vela Uniform program focused on underground nuclear detonation detection and was crucial in developing and implementing effective and reliable methods to monitor compliance with international nuclear treaty agreements. The goal of the program was to create a suitable system for the detection, identification, and location of nuclear explosions. To that end, the research program established a worldwide seismology network with prototype observatories, mobile field labs and cutting edge seismic detection equipment.
A small but notable portion of Vela Uniform research focused on underwater, rather than underground, explosive seismic signatures. Researchers piggybacked some of their seismic studies with an existing Navy program, Operation CHASE, which disposed of obsolete munitions on derelict WWII ships that were towed offshore and scuttled. Two of these disposal operations took place in the Pacific; CHASE V off the coast of central California and CHASE VI along the Aleutians. The focus of this presentation will be on the seismic studies associated with the explosive detonation of the two liberty ships and the remains of the vessels.

Jeffrey R. Wedding and Susan R. Edwards, Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas NV

Over 42,000 U.S. military and civilian personnel were involved in the atomic testing program at Bikini Atoll following World War II. The primary purposes of the Bikini tests were to secure precise and accurate ship damage and instrumentation measurements resulting from atomic bomb explosions occurring both in mid-air and just beneath the surface of the water. The two atomic bomb blasts of Operation Crossroads were both about the size of the bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. Eighteen tons of cinematography equipment, 242 naval ships, 156 aircraft, 25,000 radiation recording devices and the Navy's 5,400 experimental rats, goats and pigs went into the staging of the ABLE and BAKER detonations. The goats and pigs served as human analogs, and were placed on board ships – on decks, below decks, and in gun turrets. Of the test subjects, 2,240 survived the initial blasts and were transported to the Naval Medical Research Institute at Bethesda, Maryland. There, study of the animals continued, as researchers documented injuries and subsequent health developments or recovery. Public attention in the U.S. was quick to fall upon the tests and their subjects, particularly following a photograph filled LIFE magazine essay in August, 1947. Four Angora goats were transferred to the Argonne National Laboratory on the campus of the University of Chicago, and for a time were on public display at the Museum of Science and Industry. This is their story.

Alex Hazlett, Historical Archaeologist, Texas A&M University and Cultural Surveys Hawai`i

Ever since its annexation Hawaii has been seen as an important strategic and logistic station for U.S. naval forces operating in the Pacific. The mission of defending the islands, however, did not fall to the Navy. As early as 1899 U.S. Army troops and engineers to Hawaii, building what would eventually become formidable defenses for the island of Oahu. Although many coast defense installations have been demolished, a surprising number and variety of sites remain, from pillboxes and trenches to gun batteries, fire control stations, and missile bases.

Christine Woolaway, Vice-President, administration, Friends of Falls of Clyde, O`ahu

The Falls of Clyde has been a part of Hawaii’s history since she sailed into Honolulu Harbor January 20, 1899. She is the first and only full-rigged four-masted ship that ever came into the harbor flying the Hawaiian flag. At 133 years old what is in store for her? How will her future be measured? How will she be remembered? In a global economy that is so stressed can the saving of an historic ship have any relevance internationally, nationally or locally? Karl Kortum past Chief Curator of the National Museum in San Francisco and an important force in saving the Falls so many years ago was asked, “ Why Do We Save Ships? His response was to incorporate President Theodore Roosevelt’s statement: “The mark of a civilization is the care and thought it devotes to the next generation” and then add: “I have a strong instinct to save ships for the people I will never meet.” So much of the long-term success in preserving and restoring the Falls of Clyde rests on establishing her importance to the larger community which must commit to understanding her and supporting her. How we can do this is the subject of our discussion

David Addison et al, Samoan Studies Institute, American Samoa Community College; and Tokelau Science Education and Research Project

We highlight recent archaeological research on Nukunonu Atoll, Tokelau. Research on this island and pervious research on Atafu Atoll suggest up to 1000 years of sustainable resource management by a maritime-oriented people.

William McCarthy, Department of History, University of North Carolina – Wilmington

During the ascendancy of whaling in the Pacific (1820-1860), many crewmembers deserted or attempted to desert their vessels. The harsh working conditions aboard ship, the low and somewhat unpredictable pay scales, the long absences from home and the attractions of island life lured hundreds of such men to try their luck ashore. Among these were many Americans, but there were British, French and other nationalities represented as well. The paper will describe these conditions, and trace some numbers of these men as they jumped ship, primarily in the Marquesas and the Society Islands. It will examine the efforts of ships’ captains and local governments to prevent desertion and to corral and return deserters to their ships. Expedients were tried such as demanding that captains report deserters within twenty-four hours of their disappearance, building calabooses to confine and punish deserters, forbidding islanders to be in any way complicit in these desertions. Results were mixed. Many men deserted; some were caught and many were not. Some became ensconced in life on one island or another and became farmers, provisioners, malingerers, even slaves to the islanders. Most ended up crewing for whalers again. At Tahiti an entrepreneurial deserted created a business whereby he helped men to escape, provisioned them as they awaited their ship’s departure in hiding, and helped minimally to set them up for permanent residence. Herman Melville was the most famous of the deserters, and he wrote about his experiences at Nuku Hiva in his popular and controversial work Typee (1847). The paper will highlight the extent of these desertions, and look at the ingenuity involved in deserting successfully and in penalizing deserters. The overall situation highlights the unattractive work associated with whaling, the enormous appeal of most of the Pacific islands to the whalers, the cleverness manifested on all sides of the issue, and the resultant subculture of deserters. The bulk of the archival research was conducted in France during the summer of 2011.

Captain Rick Rogers, Researcher, Pilialoha Consultants, Hale`iwa

Between 1565 and 1815 large Spanish vessels crossed the Pacific between Manila and Acapulco. At least sixty of them were wrecked. Galleon shipwrecks have been located in the Philippines, the Marianas, Oregon, California and Mexico. Rumors persist of one or more in the Hawaiian Islands as well. This talk will provide an overview of those shipwrecks and discuss the various approaches to their discoveries, recoveries and artifact distribution.

Elke Sundstrom, Researcher, University of Victoria, Canada

Native Australian (Aboriginals) made significant contributions to the early maritime history in Australia. They became guides, boatmen, sailors, sealers steersmen, pilots and trackers. They traveled the world on European ships like other indigenous people of the Pacific. They traveled to the Pacific North America, India and South America and Britain. Their contributions have only recently been documented and recognized. (Smith K.V. 2010).

Regina Woodrom Rudrud, PhD candidate, University of Hawai`i ecological anthropology program, O`ahu

One defining characteristic of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is its involvement throughout the 20th century, and continuing on to today, with war and weapons testing - including 12 years of nuclear weapons testing. Reports regarding WWII and weapons testing contamination in the Marshalls often discuss estimated fallout levels, expected doses, and cleanup/restoration efforts. But none of the reports, including the biological opinion written for the current Kwajalein missile/rocket testing, considered impacts to species that live as long as sea turtles (50-76+ years); that can survive grave injury (even loss of limb and portions of body cavity); and that show strong site fidelity to their nesting, foraging and resting sites (often living in the same area for the majority of their lives). Preliminary research into the types and amounts of contaminants that were (and are) deposited into the marine environment suggests that the amounts may be much greater than those already identified in the terrestrial environment, particularly when the final deposition of the material is considered -- the majority of which went into the lagoons and ocean areas. The sea turtles' longevity, site fidelity and ability to survive extreme injury make them particularly vulnerable to both acute and chronic exposure to marine contaminants. In addition, because of their position in the food chain, turtles are sensitive to long-term, low-dose contamination. This paper presents real knowledge about the risks and hazards to sea turtles in the RMI environment as well as the risk to Pacific peoples who consume them. Possible outcomes include the finding that some portions of turtle cannot be safely consumed, but others can, consumption reserved for only the most special (and rare) occasions is not a risk (in terms of broader whole-system exposures), or that all edible tissues must be avoided.

Mary Jane Naone, Archaeologist, Kalaupapa National Historic Park, Moloka`i

The unique underwater cultural heritage (UCH) of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains a formidable challenge for management and preservation. The heritage includes traditional sites such as important coral reef heads and Marshallese fish traps, the Japanese and American signature of World War II in the Pacific, and the material evidence of nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll. Last year, Bikini Atoll was inscribed as a World Heritage Site, and Kwajalein Atoll remains a United States National Historic Landmark. The sites are diving destinations for World War II and diving enthusiasts, and both present challenges for monitoring and preservation.
Geography and unreliable transport pose the greatest challenge to preservation and protection. The 29 atolls and 5 islands are not easily reachable, requiring collaboration and creativity for survey and monitoring. Threats to underwater cultural resources range from wreck looting to ensuring continued access for fisherman to traditional fish traps at a proposed surf resort. The value of historic preservation often competes with development interests and the immediacy of economic need.
The Historic Preservation Office (HPO) has gained momentum, allies, and partners to approach the vastness, multiplicity of legislation, range of stakeholders, and challenges that are associated with preservation and protection of the UCH in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. HPO staff continues to seek new strategies, and to collaborate within the greater Pacific Island community to better protect our regional and global heritage.

Rhonda R. Suka, University of Hawai`i at Manoa Department of Geography, O`ahu

Along the eastern shores of Crete, Greece, many Bronze Age coastal settlements are partially submerged. Tectonic activity in the area throughout history has reshaped the coastline and disrupted these ancient settlements. At the excavations currently underway, investigation ends at the water's edge leaving the submerged portion of sites unexplored and part of the historic content omitted. Shallow water surveys are particularly challenging because boats cannot access these areas safely. Survey efforts that employ SCUBA or sensitive survey instruments generally make off shore surveys time consuming and cost prohibitive. Here we have developed an inexpensive, quick and effective method for gathering information from the shallow near-shore area adjacent to these coastal sites. This approach extends the archaeological survey offshore to document geologic evidence of the paleoenvironment and the orientation of archaeological remains preserved underwater. Examination of large areas of submerged sites is now possible with a very small number of people in a short amount of time with a substantial reduction in cost. As a reconnaissance method, this approach will guide decisions to employ more detailed yet costly methods of survey.

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22nd Annual Symposium, February 18-21, 2011

Jack Frazier, Ph.D. Researcher, Conservation and Research Center. National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution

Ecology is fundamentally about interrelationships: interactions between numerous animals and plants as well as between living organisms and multiple components and processes of the environment. These interactions involve not only diversity in life forms and environmental parameters, but also spatial and temporal variables. Ecologists put enormous importance on spatial features, but temporal considerations are routinely undervalued and under-investigated: studies lasting a decade have routinely been considered to be major temporal investments, and information from a century of investigation is the epitome of “long-term.” But, these periods – even several centuries – are too short to be able to understand various forms of biological and environmental variation as well as the ecological processes that respond to these variables. Hence, a major challenge for biological research is dealing with “deep time.” Moreover, the “natural sciences” habitually remove Homo sapiens from consideration. This omission is routinely intentional, even though there is compelling information that humans have been impacting major areas of the planet, in some cases for millennia. Ecological models and studies that have removed, or ignored, humans are bound to be incomplete and inadequate. Archaeology, by contrast, is about “deep time;” and a central theme is human-environmental interrelations. Unless ecology fully incorporates archaeological information and models it will remain impoverished and incapable of dealing with two major sources of variation that are critical for understanding most ecological processes: humans and time. Many archaeologists and anthropologists have efficiently integrated ecological concepts and perspectives into their work: indeed, given their integrative approaches that give careful consideration to deep time as well as one of the most ecologically important organisms on the planet, it can be argued that some social scientists are actually better ecologists than many of those who are categorized as “ecologists.” Hence, the challenge for both archaeology and ecology is not so much “Applying ecological models to archaeology” but the reverse.

Regina Woodrom Rudrud, PhD Candidate, Ecological Anthropology Program (Marine) Specializing in Sea Turtle Conservation Biology University of Hawai`i Mānoa

Throughout the Pacific regions of Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia, sea turtles are recognized as culturally significant species. The specifics of human-sea turtle interactions in these regions, however, are not well known, in part because ethnographic and historic reports documenting these interactions are scattered requiring extensive archival research. Ethnographic and environmental data collected over a ten-year period is analyzed to assess patterns of human–sea turtle interactions prior to (and sometimes beyond) western contact. From the ethnographic data for Polynesia, a region-wide pattern emerges where sea turtle consumption was restricted to special ceremonies where the elites such as chiefs and priests but no one else ate turtle. Only in two countries did this pattern differ. Environmental data does little to elucidate explanations for this region-wide treatment of sea turtles as restricted food sources as there is no correlation between environmental variability and the presence or absence of these restrictions. Instead the results of this research suggest such practices may have been part of an ancestral Polynesian society, developing well before human settlement into this region of the Pacific.

John N. Kittinger1, Kelly Gleason2, Jason Raupp3
1 Impact Assessment, Inc., Pacific Islands Office
2 Maritime Heritage Program, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
3 Department of Archaeology, Flinders University, Australia

What is the ecological impact of shipwreck survivor camps? In fragile island and atoll environments, shipwreck survivors can impact marine ecosystems through direct exploitation of biota for consumption, and indirectly, through the introduction of novel species and habitat alteration. In this study, we assess the direct ecological impact of shipwreck survivors on island and atoll environments, using the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) as a case study. To accomplish this, we compiled a comprehensive and spatially rectified list of shipwrecks and associated survivor camps, including timelines for habitation, provisions salvaged from shipwrecks and basic information on survival methods in these island environments. We then selected several (~4-5) survivor camps for which we had detailed evidence about the observed abundance of marine biota that were harvested, the methods and protocols developed for harvesting, and the health and well-being of the crew. We coupled estimates of abundance and exploitation rates from these detailed survivor camp descriptions with a vulnerability analysis to determine the ecological impact of these activities on different classes, or guilds, of marine species. We used detailed case studies to extrapolate to other shipwreck camps about which we know little, which allows us to develop coarse estimates of the ecological impact of shipwreck survivor camps at a regional scale. We expect this information will be valuable in informing current conservation and management actions in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, which was established as a cultural and biological reserve in the NWHI and is the largest protected area under US jurisdiction. Our study adopts an integrative, transdisciplinary approach, melding methods and disciplinary theory from archaeology, history and ecology.

Suzanne S. Finney, Maritime Archaeology and History of the Hawaiian Islands Foundation (MAHHI)

Risk is a common topic when discussing whaling. When people think of risk and whaling they commonly focus on the danger from physical harm, such as the risks whalemen faced during the hunting and processing of whales. But risk can be defined in more than one manner. When economists look at risk, for example, they may look at the results of whaling for investors, measured as profits or losses on a voyage.
Anthropologists study human behavior and the study of risk involves looking at this behavior to measure how individuals perceive risk. Are people more or less risk averse given the set of circumstances in which they find themselves? Are they more or less risk prone? What changes in the set of circumstances leads them to alter their sensitivity to risk? How is this sensitivity illustrated in their decision-making behaviors?
Looking at information related to the results of whaling voyages originating from New Bedford, Massachusetts in the nineteenth century some patterns emerge that allow us to examine the decision making behaviors of individuals involved in the business of whaling, specifically whaling agents and whaling masters. These behaviors predict varying levels of risk sensitivity that can be measured. Such information is valuable both for anthropologists and whaling researchers to improve our understanding about success and/or failure in the whaling industry.

Dr. Abdullah M. Alsharekh et al, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Human occupation along seas, rivers and lakes usually manifest itself in a different way from those in the inlands. This is to a large degree influenced by the time period in question, the environmental setting and the social state of the people living next to water bodies.

This paper aims to describe and discuss issues related to human occupation along the Red Sea coast and the Farasan archipelago, Saudi Arabia and the vast evidence that point to early human occupation of the region. Underwater investigations that point to variation in sea water level will also be illustrated. Further, early human migrations out of Africa into Arabia and the plausibility of early human sea crossing will be discussed.

Don Froning, MAHHI Foundation and Member Board of Directors Friends of Falls of Clyde

Alysia Curdts, University of Hawaii

On May 10th, sixteen scientists departed Oahu to embark on the 2010 Explorations in the Monument cruise. This 25 day expedition was a multidisciplinary collaboration among research specialists in top predators, invertebrates and invasive species, marine ecologists, and maritime archaeologists. Eight scientists made up the maritime heritage team, which was split into three smaller subgroups. The ecological assessment team was comprised of three scientists who conducted a biogeographical study of the maritime heritage sites in the Monument. The remote sensing team consisting of two specialists from SEARCH, Inc who provided side scan sonar and magnetometer surveys around the atolls visited. Lastly, the maritime archaeology team was made up of three divers who surveyed, documented, and interpreted new and existing sites in the Monument. These three subgroups worked closely with each other to provide valuable insight and information on the maritime heritage history of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. The atolls visited included French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll, Midway Atoll, and Nihoa. While at French Frigate Shoals, the maritime archaeology team continued surveying and documenting the wreck site of an early 19th century whaling vessel now known as the Two Brothers that was first discovered in 2008. Many artifacts were discovered and recorded during the 2010 expedition, including whaling implements, tryworks, rigging, ceramics, glassware, and ballast. All of these findings have aided the archaeologists in narrowing down the identity of this site. Of particular interest were the whaling implements which consisted of harpoon and lance tips. One of five harpoon tips discovered was recovered for further analysis. Commonly, harpoon tips were engraved with the name of the ship or the maker. Hopefully the results of this artifact assessment will provide more information on this site and add to the richness of the Monument’s history.

Jaime Lynn Bach, University of Montana

As vulnerable areas of the world face the effects of global climatic change, local inhabitants perceive of and react to those changes in relation to their previous understanding of their environment. In a society with limited written documentation, other sources must be relied upon in order to compare current situations to past realities. On the island of Tabiteuea Maiaki, within the Pacific island-nation of the Republic of Kiribati, the maritime history of the local culture can be examined as a source of information to expose the contrasts between past and present, through the analytical use of the archaeological record, historical artifacts, and oral traditions. Through the implementation of a three-month pilot study conducted during 2010, preliminary results can be deduced regarding the local perceptions of and reactions to climate change on the island of Tabiteuea Maiaki. Local perceptions, derived from the previous uses of their atoll environment and narratives past down from their ancestors, were compared to current observations in order to show the changing variables to which the islanders are reacting with traditional strategies and innovative techniques.

Dr. Nigel Erskine, Australian National Maritime Museum

The story of the Bounty mutiny is one of the great sagas of Pacific history and has inspired a rich literature for more than two centuries. By contrast, our knowledge of the community founded by Fletcher Christian at Pitcairn Island has remained enigmatic and obscured by evangelical and Eurocentric interpretations of the survival and development of the settlement. Founded by a small, culturally-divided group of settlers on one of the most remote islands in the Pacific and completely cut off from the world for the first 18 years of its existence - the establishment of the settlement may be seen as a remarkable success. Fifty years after the arrival of the Bounty settler-group, the island had become a regular port-of-call in the expanding network of Pacific shipping and the Pitcairn community, now approaching 200 people, had established important relationships with the Royal Navy, the American whaling fleet and Pacific communities in Tahiti, Valparaiso and Sydney. Just a few years later however, the resources of the island could no longer cope with the increasing demands and the entire population of Pitcairn was removed to Norfolk Island. Based on historical research and archaeological fieldwork conducted on Pitcairn in 1998/99, this paper examines the process of colonisation at Pitcairn to reveal the changing nature of an island environment in a period of rapid change in the Pacific.

Don Warrin, University of California-Berkeley

The story of the Portuguese colonizers as they moved eastward toward the Pacific Ocean in the sixteenth century, which resulted in settlements in Goa, Malacca, Timor, Macau, and Nagasaki is well known. The Portuguese are credited as well with voyages eastward at least to the Carolines and quite likely to Australia. But there is another interesting story, that of Portuguese who abandoned the whaling and sealing vessels of several nations, mainly the U.S., England, and France, and settled throughout the Pacific beginning in the late eighteenth century.

It was not long after the discovery of Hawaii by James Cook in 1778 that Portuguese were settling there, which ultimately led, a hundred years later, to entire families being recruited from the Portuguese Atlantic islands to work in the sugar plantations. But there is much more to the story: Settlers in New Zealand intermarrying with local Maoris, participants in the Australian Gold Rush, beachcombers throughout the atolls of the western Pacific. Deserters from whaling vessels were prevalent enough, in fact, to enter the world of fiction, in such works as "Deschard of Oneaka" by Australian writer Louis Becke. They enter the literature, both fictional and non-fictional, both as villains and honest settlers whose descendants to this day still recognize their ethnic heritage. Some examples are a Cape Verdean named Brava, said to be one of the wealthiest men in the Bonin Islands in the mid-nineteenth century; Manuel Carroza, according to Joshua Slocum the "king" of Juan Fernandez Island in the late nineteenth century; and Azorean Antone De Brum, who settled in the Marshall Islands in the 1860s, and whose descendant, Banny deBrum, is Ambassador to the U.S. from the Republic of the Marshall Islands.

Gwen Sinclair and G. Salim Mohammed, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Library

The Map Collection at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Library once held approximately 90,000 printed aerial photographs of Hawai‘i and the Pacific area. The collection consisted of Navy photographs of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and the Western Pacific as well as U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) photographs of Hawai‘i. Dates of the photographs ranged from World War II to the 1990s. On October 30, 2004, a devastating flood damaged the entire collection, resulting in a 6+ year process of determining how to replace or restore this unique photograph collection.

In the first part of the presentation, we will discuss our efforts to locate replacements for these photographs. The second part of the session will look at ways of making aerial photographs accessible to users. Photographs with sparse information about them are a challenge to make available so the user can discover them and obtain copies. Combining technology such as Geographic Information Systems, protocols like Web Mapping Services and Web Feature Services, and software like Photoshop in creative ways can help us make historical aerial photography available. We will outline three approaches to make our historical imagery discoverable and downloadable—the USGS photographs using flightline diagrams, USDA photographs using mosaics, and potential approaches to operationalizing the discovery of our Pacific World War II era photographs. We will showcase our success with the USGS and USDA photographs and examine challenges with the World War II-era photographs. Making our collections accessible to users—and moving them from drawers to desktops—poses exciting and challenging problems to solve as we move to more open collections.

Susan R. Edwards, Colleen M. Beck, and Maureen L. King, Desert Research Institute

Looking back from the perspective of 2011, it is hard to imagine that anyone ever seriously considered excavating harbors with nuclear explosives. The Atomic Energy Commission’s Plowshare Program, however, did just that and more. Beginning in 1957 until its 1975 demise, the Plowshare Program focused on developing peaceful applications for nuclear explosives in both the industrial and civil works arenas. “Geographical engineering,” a concept first championed by Edward Teller, involved the movement of vast quantities of earth using nuclear might and was a key component of the civil works portion of the program.
The Hawaiian Islands seemed like an ideal location for demonstrating the engineering potential of nuclear explosives. The Army Corps of Engineers, working in conjunction with scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, identified six potential Plowshare civil works projects involving harbor construction in the islands. Four were proposed as nuclear excavation demonstration projects and two were planned as non-nuclear high explosive scaling experiments. None of the proposed nuclear harbors ever made it beyond the feasibility study phase and only one of the high explosive experiments was carried out along the Big Island’s northwest coast.
In a recently completed study, archaeologists from the Desert Research Institute conducted extensive archival research, interviews with program participants, and field assessments of the Plowshare locations planned for Hawai’i. The results of that research are summarized in this presentation.

Suzanne S. Finney, MAHHI Foundation

The challenge of working terrestrial sites in high-risk areas for unexploded ordnance is not an unknown concept for those archaeologists working in Asia and the Pacific. Less understood, perhaps, are the dangers faced with underwater or shoreline areas, especially those that have experienced heavy military activity. This paper discusses some of the experiences faced by the author encountering ordnance during several investigations, specifically ordnance associated with World War II in the Pacific.

Captain Richard W. Rogers, Pilialoha

Captain Richard W. Rogers, Pilialoha

At dawn the lookout called out “Aina Hou!”

Captain Freeman shifted the telegraph for the engineer to reduce speed, while the stewards set the breakfast tables in both the men’s and women’s salons.

The princess and her court were dressing in their riding clothes, in spite of the fact that the nearest horse was 135 miles behind them.

In the men’s salon Mr. W.D. Alexander took notes for both his survey work and the Daily Pacific Commercial Advertiser as Governors Nainoa and Kapena explained to the haoles how the name of the island now towering over the bow of the Iwalani might be translated from the native tongue as “Tooth Island”.

Mr. Dole helped Mr. Jaeger pack his instruments for recording scientific data, Mr. Deverell, prepared his superior photographic apparatus to document the excursion that was to become an environmental calamity.

Jeffrey Kuwabara, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

At 1:00 AM on March 20th, 1917, the steel screw steamer SS Maui, a one-time favorite passenger and cargo vessel of the booming inter island plantation trade in the Territory of Hawaii, was seeking shelter on the Kona Coast from a fierce storm. Unfortunately, a compass error put the vessel off course, and she went hard aground on a lava reef near Makalawena. The crew took to the boats, managing to be blown ashore without loss of life. The Maui, a valuable vessel representing the pinnacle of island steamer design, was a total loss despite salvage efforts. The extensive remains of the ship, relatively close to shore and yet mostly unknown for more than 90 years, have recently been relocated by divers from the University of Hawaii’s Marine Option Program. The site, located within the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, provides a great opportunity for a hands-on collaborative NOAA/UH project in marine archaeology and maritime heritage. It also provides an additional sampling site for ongoing studies in species biodiversity. The survey of the SS Maui site was initiated this year between August 3-13. The project included a number of public presentations and other heritage opportunities on the island of Hawaii.

Regina Woodrom Rudrud, PhD Candidate, Ecological Anthropology Program (Marine) Specializing in Sea Turtle Conservation Biology University of Hawai`i Mānoa

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21st Annual Symposium, February 13-15, 2010
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Richard A. Gould, Professor (Emeritus), Anthropology, Brown University

Archaeological surveys and archival research during the 1990s on the Gould Island Naval Air Facility in Narragansett Bay, RI, uncovered a variety of factors relating to the repeated and tragic failures of the MK. XIII aerial torpedo in a series of critical encounters with the Japanese Navy and merchant ships during 1942 and early 1943. Gould Island NAF was the principal site for testing torpedos for aerial and submarine use from the early 1920s on and was also the site of the Naval Torpedo Factory, the largest employer in the history of the State of Rhode Island. A survey of Gould Island with members of the Quonset Air Museum in 1993-94, followed by archival studies at the Naval War College in Newport, RI, revealed a history of ad hoc and poorly-controlled torpedo drop test and firing experiments, with suggestions of a cover-up following the failures of these torpedos early in the war. We will look at the physical remains and history of these activities at Gould Island NAF in relation to their bearing on the development of the aerial torpedo as a weapon in early W.W. II. Included in this discussion is an interview with Ensign George Gay (USN), the sole survivor of Torpedo Squadron 8 at the Battle of Midway.

Patrick Smith, Director, Operations, Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (CMAR)

Our National Parks and Marine Sanctuaries are established to protect and preserve areas of great natural beauty and ecological, historical and human significance. Often when establishing those boundaries, by sheer serendipity, objects that we were unaware of at the time are included inside these perimeters of protection. This is the case of two Grumman aircraft that were discovered within the boundaries of Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. I will present summaries of the history of each type of aircraft - Avenger and Guardian, how one type of aircraft is a direct evolution of the other, and the events associated with each specific aircraft that lead to their final end within these federally protected waters. Also presented will be the ongoing monitoring and documentation work associated with these unique sites, the groups supporting these efforts, and the outlook for these downed warbirds for the future.

Justin Taylan, Yoji Sakaida, www.PacificWrecks.org
, info[at]pacificwrecks.org

Sunken off Munda on New Georgia Island, in the Solomon Islands is the wreckage of a World War II Japanese bomber. Although known to locals and SCUBA divers, no one is aware of circumstances of its loss, or importance. The passage of time and lack of appreciation leave this wreck as simply an unknown remnant from the war. Despite these challenges, historians Yoji Sakaida and Justin Taylan documented, identified and researched the wreck off Munda during 2006-2007. Together, they precisely identified the aircraft, and revealed its significant role in history.

The wreck is a Cyu-kou Type 96 land based attack bomber, nicknamed “Nell” by the Allies. Only two other Nell wrecks are known to exist today, and none are displayed in museums, making this type very rare. The “Nell” is most famous for its role sinking the HMS Prince of Wales and Repulse. This attack was the first time battleships were sunk exclusively by air attack while underway at sea.

Conducting archival research in Japan and the United States, the sunken “Nell” wreck was confirmed shot down on December 28, 1942 flying a transport mission. Incredibly, the former pilot, Keizo Kondo, is still alive in Japan and was interviewed and shared his memories of the mission and ditching. Equally amazing is the revelation that his bomber was the first aerial victory for American Rex Barber, who later became famous for shooting down Admiral Yamamoto’s bomber. Barber ended the war as a highly decorated ace and passed away in 2001.

Craig Fuller, Sonoma State University, Cultural Resources Management MA Student;
TIGHAR, The International Group For Aircraft Recovery, Aviation Archaeology Specialist; AAIR, Aviation Archaeological Investigation & Research, Owner, aair[at]aviationarchaeology.com

In 2005, the Yap State Historic Preservation Officer of the State of Yap, Federated States of Micronesia and the U.S. National Park Service agreed on the need for a professional assessment of the World War II-era Japanese aircraft wrecks around the old Colonia Airport in Rull Municipality, Yap. The Historic Preservation Officer contracted with The International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR) to undertake this assessment. This presentation will report the findings of the survey and assessment as well as recent actions that have since taken place to preserve the aviation history of Yap.

Dr. Silvano Jung, Ellengowan Enterprises – archaeological consultancies

This paper discusses the archaeology of five PBY-4 and PBY-5 Catalina flying boats of the United States Navy Patrol Wing Ten (Patwing 10), which were lost to Japanese air raids during the early stages of the Pacific war in Darwin, Northern Territory and Broome, Western Australia. In 2008 a side-scan sonar survey was conducted by Inpex Browse Ltd (Inpex), as part of their environmental assessment for a proposed gas plant in Darwin Harbour’s East Arm. The survey resulted in the discovery of the last missing Catalina in East Arm. The site is of rare and pristine PBY-4 Catalina from Patwing 10. It is argued that all of the three Patwing 10 Catalinas in Darwin Habour are highly significant, not only for their potential to tell us about the past, but also for their association with a historically significant event in Australia’s history, which some have described as Australia’s Pearl Harbor ie, the first Japanese air raid at Darwin on 19 February 1942. In light of the current threats to all of the flying boats in East Arm, this paper will also discuss some of the current management issues in trying to ensure their protection.

Patwing 10 had dispersed its Catalinas to Java (Indonesia), as well as Darwin. Two of their aircraft were anchored in Broome’s Roebuck Bay, together with 13 other flying boats, which had escaped the fall of Java to the Japanese. All of the flying boats were destroyed on the water during a sweep by nine Zero fighters of the Imperial Japanese Navy on the morning of 3 March 1942, some two weeks after the attack on Darwin. On the basis of archaeological research conducted in Broome, a hypothesis is put forward as to where the two Patwing 10 machines may lie.

Russ Matthews, The International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR), tigharuss[at]mor-ent.com

One of the most significant aircraft in the history of US naval aviation was the Douglas TBD-1 “Devastator” torpedo bomber. A revolutionary design when introduced to the fleet in 1937, the type played a key role in the desperate early months of the Pacific War from the first hit and run raids against the Japanese to the pivotal Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway. Today, no example of the Devastator survives in any museum or collection.

However, two intact Devastators have been located hidden beneath the now tranquil waters of the lagoon at Jaluit Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Individually historic, these planes were ditched February 1, 1942 during a mission from the carrier USS Yorktown (CV-5) and are among the first American aircraft lost in offensive operations in World War Two. What’s more, these sunken warbirds represent the last best examples of an important part of our shared heritage once thought to have vanished forever.

In 2003, The International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR) initiated The Devastator Project. Working closely with the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the United States Navy’s History & Heritage Command, the Naval Aviation Museum Foundation, and the Center for Maritime Archaeology and Conservation at Texas A&M University, this unprecedented effort seeks to evaluate the Jaluit Devastator wrecks and determine whether either one is a suitable candidate for recovery, conservation, and preservation at the National Museum of Naval Aviation in Pensacola, Florida.

Through a richly illustrated presentation, TIGHAR board member and project diver Russ Matthews will review the history of these remarkable aircraft, describe the latest findings and field work (including the most recent expedition in June, 2009), and provide a glimpse of how it may yet be possible to save a Devastator.

Kelly Gleason, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, NOAA, kelly.gleason[at]noaa.gov

In August of 2008, a team of maritime archaeologists discovered an unidentified whaling shipwreck site at French Frigate Shoals. This site may be one of three whaling ships reported lost at this atoll. At that time, the team discovered trypots, bricks, rigging and anchors, but nothing that could positively identify the site. In June of 2009, a team continued survey of the mystery whaling shipwreck site, and despite limited time, discovered a new portion of the wrecksite and several new artifacts. These artifacts may assist in identification of the mystery ship, and bring us closer to understanding the story of this whaling shipwreck site.

This talk will also discuss recent efforts by the Monument maritime archaeologist, in collaboration with USFWS cartographers, to understand the exact location of “Two Brothers Reef,” marked on early charts only to be removed in the early 1900s. The mystery of Two Brothers Reef, which appeared, and then disappeared on maps of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands may be another piece of the puzzle to identify this mystery shipwreck site at French Frigate Shoals. The ongoing effort to document and interpret the mystery whaling ship at French Frigate Shoals is one of many project updates from Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

Derek Smith, Graduate Student, HIMB

Our knowledge of the dynamic ocean landscape has increased greatly in recent years as a result of the multidisciplinary approach to studying the environment. For any ecosystem under study, there is a need for accurate data about the organisms to understand how that ecosystem responds to perturbations and rebounds from disturbance. Ecological science can benefit from ongoing studies of the material remains from man-made disturbances and the effects of introduced foreign materials on the community structure at those disturbance sites. Relatively few studies have investigated these community-wide interactions on intentionally placed objects such as artificial reefs, and even fewer have looked at community dynamics surrounding unintentionally placed objects. In June of 2009, a small team consisting of two ecologists and an archaeologist began conducting baseline assessments of the biological communities associated with five submerged cultural resource sites in the Monument. Surveys quantifying fish, invertebrate, and algal communities were conducted and coral biopsies were collected for analysis of genetic relatedness. The results of these surveys are also being compared with surveys conducted on the communities of the surrounding reefs to investigate the hypothesis that submerged resource sites harbor different levels of biodiversity. Oceanographic data (e.g. pH, water temp, salinity, etc) was also collected in situ during surveys and temperature and tide recorders were deployed at the sites for continued remote sensing. These efforts represent the beginning of a long term monitoring effort of submerged resource sites throughout the Monument.

Dr. Hans Van Tilburg, NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

In 2005 the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab (HURL) discovered the I-401, a giant Japanese aircraft carrier submarine, in deepwater off the southwest coast of Oahu. This submarine and others like it, capable of launching attack aircraft, were developed as secret weapons during World War II. In 2009 HURL discovered the I-14 and the I-201, another aircraft carrying submarine and a fast attack sub, both examples of advanced Japanese technology late in the war. All three submarines were part of a five-sub squadron of boats captured by the US Navy at the end of the conflict and brought to Hawaii for study. They were all subsequently sunk as target assets. Staff from NOAA’s sanctuary system in the Pacific Islands region participated in the HURL project, which was recorded on film by Wild Life Productions for National Geographic. This presentation will discuss the significance of the submarines and the collaborative effort to assess the sites and share the information with the public.

Alysia Curdts, Maritime Archaeology Surveying Techniques Alumnus, acurdts[at]yahoo.com

The 2009 Maritime Archaeological Surveying Techniques (MAST) field school provided a great opportunity for University of Hawaii students to experience the multidisciplinary field of maritime archaeology. It took place over three weeks on the islands of Oahu and Lana`i. Six students were taken to Lanai’s famed shipwreck beach to conduct a non-invasive survey on an unidentified wreck site dating back to the ranching and plantation period of the late 19th to early 20th century. This unique project was led by Hans Van Tilburg of NOAA’S, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the University of Hawai’i’s Marine Option Program. One of the most rewarding aspects of the experience was the public outreach involving the community of Lana’i. Students from Lana’i High and Elementary School ventured out to the research site to learn about the process involved in surveying the cultural resources that lay in their own backyard. There was also a presentation given to the people of Lanai about the project and importance of maritime heritage. Hopefully this program will continue to provide educational opportunities for university students and the public alike.

Adam Johnson and Erika Viernes Stein, National Park Service-- Adam (Pu'uhonua O Honaunau), Erika (Kalaupapa), adam_johnson[at]nps.gov, erika_stein[at]nps.gov

The Pacific Island Network of the National Park Service includes park units dispersed throughout the Pacific Basin. While the majority of the historic properties within these units are terrestrial in nature, these parks also encompass a range of underwater, maritime, and littoral cultural resources. Such maritime cultural resources include traditional Hawaiian aquaculture sites such as fishponds, the evidence of maritime voyaging and industry through petroglyphs, canoe landings and hale wa`a (canoe houses), historic nineteenth century shipwrecks and the remains of devastation of World War II. While some of these resources are well managed and studied, such as the USS Arizona, others like Hale o Kapuni, a shark heiau near Pu`ukohola Heiau, are only known through a limited historical record and have yet to be located. In addition, near shore terrestrial cultural resources are faced with an increasing threat of being submerged due to climate change. This includes factors such as sea level rise, severe weather events, and volcanic subsidence. In an effort of mitigation and on-going management of submerged, maritime, and littoral cultural resources throughout the Pacific Island Network, we present the early stages of a localized submerged/littoral cultural resource team including our short and long-term goals and the future development of partnerships.

Erika Viernes Stein, National Park Service-- Kalaupapa National Historical Park, erika_stein[at]nps.gov

The timeline of human history on the Kalaupapa (or Makanalua) peninsula is unique and dynamic. As many people know, the most prominent story of Kalaupapa deals with the still intact Hansen’s disease settlement (formerly known as Leprosy); a community of people who were exiled to the peninsula by an Act of the Monarchial Government in 1865. Saint Damien conducted his renowned work during the early period of this history. These are, of course, very important stories that hold not only local and national significance, but also international significance. The stories that are not as often voiced are those of the kama'äina who flourished on the peninsula for centuries before the Hansen’s disease settlement was established. More and more light is being shed on the Kalaupapa kama'äina and our knowledge of their lives and the transitional period of how they interacted with the Hansen’s disease patients continues to grow. In an effort to understand this broad and complex human history of the Kalaupapa region, this presentation provides an overview of ongoing work to represent both tangible and intangible maritime cultural heritage of the Kalaupapa region, focusing first on the ahupua'a of Kalaupapa.

Dr. Hans Van Tilburg, NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, hans.vantilburg[at]noaa.gov

Built in 1878 by the famous Russell and Company on the Clyde River, the four-masted ship Falls of Clyde was one of the most successful general cargo carriers of her day. In 1898, the ship was registered with the Hawaiian government and proudly flew the Hawaiian flag. In 1907 she was modified to carry molasses and oil, and as a sailing tanker was involved in the Hawaiian transpacific sugar trade for the Matson Navigation Company. In later years she served as a fuel barge in Alaska, but historic renovations beginning in 1968 soon brought her back to her full glory as a museum ship, a familiar and well-loved part of the Honolulu waterfront. The Falls of Clyde was designated a National Historic Landmark Vessel in 1989. Today the Falls of Clyde is the world’s only surviving four-masted full- rigged ship, and the world’s only example of a sailing tanker…or she was, before she fell into disrepair and had her rig struck down to the deck. The Friends of the Falls of Clyde, a 501(c)3 group established in 2008, has launched a “Million Quarters Drive,” reminiscent of Bob Krauss’s own campaign to keep the ship afloat, and is making plans for hauling the ship out in dry dock, while working topsides to bring life back into the venerable ship (http://www.friendsoffallsofclyde.org/). This presentation provides an update on the project.

Olaf T. Engvig, Maritime historian, marine archaeologist and author (www.engvig.com/olaf)

Up until the late 1880s, almost all metal built ships were made from iron. Thereafter steel became the preferred building material and ships of iron were discarded as soon as the opportunity rose. A hundred years after being built, few iron ships were left in the world; mainly some storage hulks and wrecks left in remote locations.

When I started restoring a former research ship from 1866 I discovered that the newer repairs with steel were rusted away while the old original iron plates were of good quality. This was contrary to common knowledge and ship’s surveyor’s claims. Research then commenced on this interesting phenomenon. By drawing on metallurgy, maritime history and knowledge from ship restoration, it was concluded that iron was, indeed, far superior with regards to durability.

Years of research lead to the publication of my book: “Viking to Victorian, Exploring the Use of Iron in Shipbuilding”. The lasting quality of iron built ships has only become known to the world during the last few years. This book has been an important catalyst in this regard. It is the first book ever to be published on this topic, which also pertains to whether or not the FALLS OF CLYDE should be saved.

The lecture, including amazing photos, will focus on the use of iron versus steel in historic ships. Among the highlights is how iron ships have outlasted younger steel ships left in the same environment.

Keith Gordon, President, New Zealand Underwater Heritage Group Inc., searov[at]xtra.co.nz

The media described RMS Niagara during her construction as – “the Titanic of the Pacific.” Arriving in Auckland on her maiden voyage from Scotland in 1913, the new 13,415 Union Steam Ship Co. vessel was the largest ship to have come south of the line. Heralding new opportunities for Australia and New Zealand trade with North America, the opulent features of the vessel also attracted great interest from the press and the public. Sailing the Sydney, Auckland, Suva, Honolulu, Vancouver route, the Niagara had by 1940 sailed more miles than any other passenger vessel. On the night of June 18th 1940 the vessel departed Auckland for Suva with 349 passengers and crew, included in her cargo was a secret consignment of 590 gold bars weighing 8 tons and valued at the time close to 2.5 million pounds.

On the night of June 13th, the German raider Orion had sailed into Hauraki Gulf and laid a barrage of mines across the approaches to the Port of Auckland. Unaware of the minefield, the Niagara struck a mine and sank soon after. Due to the calm conditions no lives were lost, however the gold bullion went down with the ship in 120 metres of water. The epic 1941 salvage of the gold in wartime conditions was hailed as a world record depth for marine salvage.

Today the Niagara is a time capsule of a past era when passengers travelled the Pacific in style and opulence. The sunken vessel is also a reminder of a war, when an enemy came in secret from the opposite side of the world to attack Pacific shipping.

The advent of microchip technology and the development of deep diving using mixed gasses has opened the door to explore this deep shipwreck, however she remains a challenge for traditional maritime archaeological methodology.

Richard W. Rogers and Scott S. Williams

The spring tides of April 2009 provided low water to explore rarely exposed sea-caves along the Oregon Coast. This allowed the collection of more sherds of Qing Dynasty porcelain to add to the collection of artifacts once belonging to the Manila Galleon believed to be the Santo Cristo de Burgos, lost in 1693.
A Ground Penetrating Radar survey of the Nehalem Sand Spit has exposed cobbles deposited from the tsunamis of 1700 AD as well as an earlier one of 1100 YBP. This was followed up by systematic augering to determine the present water-table in areas known to have offered up shipwreck artifacts in the past.
An expedition into the off-shore waters to investigate magnetic anomalies located in previous surveys was conducted in August, 2009. Recon missions to the generally inaccessible beaches were conducted as well as limited diving and a sonar survey of magnetic “hits” helped team leaders plan for next season’s more intensive under-water program.

Timothy Stafford, MA Student, California State University, Los Angeles

Is maritime archaeology losing its ground among the new generation of archaeologists? Over the past decade we see less and less formal study in colleges, especially in the United States. Regionalization is somewhat to blame, departments tend to offer what their faculty specialize in and often what is specialized in are areas that are more accessible to a larger number of people. To date in the United States there are fewer than one dozen universities and colleges offering courses in maritime or underwater archaeology. Widely used books such as A History of Archaeological Thought by Bruce Trigger, a book used in many theory classes nationwide do not even mention underwater or maritime archaeology. Maritime and in fact underwater archaeological sites and evidence of maritime history is not easily accessible to those of us who are not able to enter the underwater environment, what is seen is more emphasis on old world archaeology, new world archaeology and even newer school within archaeology, though relatively small sub fields they appeal to more and more, fields such as cave archaeology a field spear headed by Dr. James Brady. The new generation of archaeologists, students in the late teens and twenties learn from the older generation, and many of the older generation, such as White, Trigger and Hodder were all involved with archaeology before underwater environments were being promoted as areas for archaeological investigation. The opposite of what needs to happen is happening. With the vast majority of archaeologists working on land the opportunity for maritime archaeology to expand into a larger field is dwindling.

Daniel T. O'Brien, BentStar Project, (www.bentstarproject.org)

Presentation and discussion of the documentary Last Flight Home (http://www.LastFlightHome.org) by one of the filmmakers. "The film follows the story of three searches in Palau and the familes touched by the work." [from the DVD jacket]

Victoria S. Creed and Muriel Seto, Waihona Aina Corp.

Our long-range project will re-visit the record of a body of selected known voyaging in the Polynesian, and in particular, the Hawaiian Ethnographic record. These basic sources with claimed departure and arrival places, if known, will include notes as finding aids. Times shown will be in sequence rather than as specific dates. It remains for the archaeologist (and/or ethnographic astronomers) to provide approximate dates. With many new technologies developed, the time has come when the ethnographic record may assist archaeologists, linguists and historians of the Pacific, who have gathered their own records and facts. Polynesian ancestors can speak through their versions of travel. Voyaging peoples of the Pacific Islands generally went to the east or northeast, in what Fornander calls the unbroken chain of Kahiki. In the last decade we have learned about the Polynesian's powerful knowledge of astronomy, the currents, birds, clouds, and fish which allowed them accurate wayfinding methods in their world of water with dots of land. A few voyages did not go to the East, like that of Hema, which was a voyage to the south, with the word play of the chief's name and the Hawaiian word for South. Katherine Luomala also collected a voyage from the Society Islands that speaks of a "voyage" taking place from south to north. While the ethnographic record speaks in colorful contexts and is not at all literal, it is nevertheless couched on factual information. Another tradition holds that Kane and Hina arrived in the Hawaiian Islands from the EAST, and Western archaeology/anthropology is inclined to pooh-pooh such stories, as not agreeing with western decisions about "facts" as they see them. However, on this voyage Hina is said to have brought with her the coot and the gallinule. Indeed, we now know that Hawaii's versions of these birds are verified offspring of American origin. The gallinule absolutely could not have arrived here by random winds, although it is possible the coot might have. Why are we not curious about this cultural claim and its anomalous assertions? Today’s paper will present our intent, methods and goals.

Deloris Guttman, African American Diversity Cultural Center Hawai’i, aadcch[at]aadcch.org

Sixty-Five years ago, on May 21, 1944, one hundred and thirty-two African American enlisted men of the 29th Chemical Decontamination Company from Schofield Barracks Hawai’i lost their lives in the West Loch Disaster along with hundreds of military personnel including the Navy, Marines, Coast Guard and Army. On the day of the tragedy, there were thirty-four landing ship tanks (LSTs) nestled together at six berths along West Loch Peninsula at Pearl in preparation for the invasion of Saipan. The 29th Chemical Decontamination Company’s job was to unload ammunition aboard landing craft tank (LCT) 963 that was lashed onto the main deck of vessel LST 353. The crates on LCT 963, held approximately 1,865 boxes of 4.2-inch mortar ammunition. Each of LST’s carried 80 to 100 drums of high-octane fuel and six thousand cubic feet of cargo ammunition. The enlisted soldiers were a human assembly line that passed ammunition boxes by hand from one man to the next. Some were stacking boxes on trucks
that would take them ashore. The work party started early Sunday morning. After lunch, the men continued the assembly line of handling boxes of ammunition placing them onto trucks. In mid-afternoon, a few minutes part 3:00 p.m., suddenly, there was a deafening blast somewhere on LST 353. Metal and body parts were seen flying through the air landing on adjacent ships and water. This tragic story was classified until 1960. On May 21, 2009, at West Loch Peninsula was the first time these Black men’s life was recognized and celebrated by their own people.

Scotty Scott, Chief of Operations, Pacific Aviation Museum

Abstract not available

Captain Richard W. Rogers, Pilialoha

Hawaiian Airlines celebrated their 80th anniversary by re-purchasing, resurrecting and flying the very first airplane they ever owned.
The Bellanca Pacemaker was found to be the best aircraft available in 1929 to demonstrate flying as an experience of safety, ease and comfort rather than of daring danger and thrilling adventure.
After serving her role here in the islands for over two years with Inter-Island Airways, Bellanca N251 was sold to serve flying passengers and cargo throughout the Pacific Northwest, Alaska and Canada for three decades before operating in private hands for many years. She had been both sunk and crashed in her time and been completely rebuilt twice before Hawaiian Airlines again brought her back home.
She flies again as Hawaiian Airlines’ icon of stylish comfort in aviation.

Suzanne Finney, President, Maritime Archaeology and History of the Hawaiian Islands Foundation [MAHHI], finney[at]mahhi.org

The New Bedford Whaling Museum Research Library in New Bedford, Massachusetts contains a large collection of documents related to 19th century American whaling. Included in this collection are a number of letters to and from whaling masters that chronicle their events as they conduct their whale hunts. The majority of information in these letters is very repetitive, focusing on the results of the hunt, the condition of the ship and crew, and requests for additional funds or supplies. Occasionally, however, the writers stray from the ordinary and report on something unusual, and often humorous. It is these letters that form the basis for this list that highlights some of the more unexpected experiences on board whalers in the 1800s.


20th Annual Symposium, February 21-22, 2009
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

The Star of India
Ray Ashley, Maritime Museum of San Diego

In her long and storied career the iron bark Star of India (Euterpe) has known many occupations: sailing freighter, immigrant ship, fisheries support vessel, curiosity, derelict, community preservation project, waterfront icon, classroom, and object of inspiration. At 146 years of age, she is the world's oldest active ship and perhaps the last operational ship extant to have flown the flag of the Hawaiian monarchy. This talk will review her working history as well as present context and transformative process by which she has become the most recognized symbol of America's ninth largest city and an object of devotion to those who sail her today. Using the Star of India and other of the great historic ships as an examples, this talk will also argue the case for their consideration as an "architecture of the sea" spanning the centuries and the globe and thus an appropriate subject for designation by UNESCO as a collective multi-national World Heritage Site.

The New Pearl Harbor Visitor Center and Museum
Paul DePrey, World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument

The National Park Service and it's partners have undertaken the effort to replace the failing visitor center and museum at Halawa landing--and continue to provide a memorable experience for 1.5M visitors annually. The NPS has worked closely to develop innovative, green building designs and exhibits. This presentation will provide an update on the fundraising effort, the building construction process and design of the new exhibits. Some of the issues that the NPS had to work through will be presented. An overview of the recent proclamation of the WWII Valor in the Pacific National Monument will review the current status of protected sites now associated with NPS management at Pearl Harbor.

Preserving the Battleship Missouri at Pearl Harbor
Michael Carr, USS Missouri Memorial Association, Inc.

The USS Missouri, the last U.S. battleship to be launched and the last to be decommissioned, has served her nation with honor and distinction through three wars. Today she is a fitting memorial to the people and historic events reflecting our nation’s legacy of duty, honor, and sacrifice. This presentation will cover the history of preservation efforts to maintain the ship, the current drydock plan, teak deck restoration, funding challenges, and ongoing efforts to enhance historic interpretation (both on the ship and pier side).

USS Bowfin Drydocking
Jerry Hofwolt, USS Bowfin Submarine Museum and Park

Jerry Hofwolt, Executive Director of the USS Bowfin Submarine Museum and Park will present, “Lessons Learned from the Dry Docking of the USS Bowfin”. The power point presentation will provide a review of the planning process, preparation and conduct of the USS Bowfin’s 2004 dry docking at Marisco Shipyard in Kapolei Hawaii. USS Bowfin had last been dry docked in 1987 when she was prepared for the filming of the “Winds of War” television series. Part of this preparation had included ballasting with marine cement. Come learn the story of the intervening 17 years of salt, water and fresh Hawaii air.

The Steamship William G. Mather and the Value of Historical Ships
Tim Runyan, NOAA Maritime Heritage Program

Historical ships and replicas can add value to a museum, historic site or community. There are several recent instances that illustrate this point. One is the 618-foot Steamship William G. Mather built in 1925 and once the flagship of the Cleveland-Cliffs Fleet. The Mather served a valuable life mainly carrying iron ore in the Great Lakes. Once she was removed from service, she faced the scrap yard. The Mather was spared this fate and went through a conversion to become a museum vessel in the Cleveland, Ohio on the Lake Erie waterfront. Now the Mather is posed for another chapter in her life as an exhibition site for her new owner, the Great Lakes Science Center. She will remain on the Cleveland waterfront, but host new exhibits as part of a $2M project. She wil be used for new exhibits, to tell her own story about the development of the Great Lakes and Cleveland, and for education and outreach.

Exploration and Discovery in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
Kelly Gleason, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

On July 31, 2008 a team of six maritime archaeologists began a NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) sponsored 30-day expedition to Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands aboard the NOAA ship Hi`ialakai. The main objectives of the maritime heritage expedition were exploration, survey and interpretation of the diverse archaeological resources in these remote Pacific atolls. Underwater mapping, video and photography were methods used to share these maritime heritage stories with the public in a variety of ways. These shipwreck sites tell fascinating stories about hundreds of years of seafaring throughout these atolls. The development of a film, site plans and a museum exhibit will help the public touch and see the history of this very remote and special place. In addition to the discovery and preliminary documentation of two new whaling ships, documentation of known shipwreck sites and collection of photo and video, the team successfully recovered three artifacts from two shipwreck sites for the development of a maritime heritage themed exhibit at the Monument’s Mokupapapa Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii. This presentation will discuss the activities of the research expedition to Papahānaumokuākea and the continuing work to interpret and deliver these sites to the public.

The Art and Craft of Traditional Ship Rigging
Jamie White, San Francisco Maritime NHP

As the poets said: The Sailing ship “seems to draw its strength from the very soul of the world, its formidable ally, held to obedience by the frailest bonds, like a fierce ghost captured in a snare of something even finer than spun silk. For what is the array of the strongest ropes, the tallest spars and the stoutest canvas against the mighty breath of the infinite, but thistle stalks, cobwebs and gossamer?” A discussion and PowerPoint presentation detailing the problems, solutions, and results in restoring the rigging on historic sailing ships built on the river Clyde, the birth place of the last remaining Clydebuilt sailing ships afloat ~ Balclutha, Glenlee, Moshulu, Pommern, and Hawaii’s own Falls of Clyde. There was a time, on the River Clyde, when years as an apprentice rigger were followed by years as a journeyman rigger, and one became a master rigger finally because their knowledge of the craft was complete. Their rigs were not just spliced and seized they were also held together with a chain of knowledge unbroken by time and tempered by Cape Horn. Clydebuilt was not just a perception of quality but a definition. This presentation will feature the full rigged ship Balclutha and the 3 masted barque Glenlee and is approximately 30 minutes in duration. Presented by Jamie White, Historic Ships Rigging Foreman, San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park. Mr. White supervised the rigging restoration of the barque Glenlee in 1998 in Scotland and the barque Moshulu in 1995 in Philadelphia.

The Man Who Really Saved the Falls of Clyde
John Wright, Historian

Saving the Falls of Clyde
Bruce McEwan, President, Friends of the Falls of Clyde

The Friends of Falls of Clyde is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization that was formed in late 2008 for the purposes of preserving and restoring the 130-year-old ship, Falls of Clyde. As a small, fledgling group, the Friends of Falls of Clyde faces a number of challenges. These include: managing inherited environmental issues, raising funds in a tough economic climate, and generating public- and private-sector support for the goals of the organization. By using traditional and new media tools, the group hopes to send a positive message that the Falls of Clyde is a National Historic Landmark that must be saved for future generations.

Enhancing Maritime Archaeology in the Main Hawaiian Islands
Hans Van Tilburg, NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries

Every five years, each NOAA sanctuary site conducts a management plan review, at which time the public “scoping” process plays an important part in helping to determine necessary and desired changes to that site’s specific priorities. The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has now begun this process. In recognition of the variety of maritime archaeological resources in Hawaii (particularly in the Main Hawaiian Islands), as well as the current threats and acknowledged lack of existing resource management in this area, the chairperson of the State of Hawaii’s Department of Land and Natural Resources addressed a letter to sanctuary co-managers in 2006, recommending that the program consider adding maritime archaeological resources to the sanctuary’s management plan. The state’s letter noted that these kinds of resources “are of national significance and can provide valuable information about various facets of Hawai‘i’s maritime heritage.” A brief maritime archaeological assessment document was subsequently developed by the Pacific Islands regional office for the sanctuary, addressing the existing inventory, current resource management efforts, current threats, and the potential for future collaboration in this preservation field. Public participation in the management plan review process is welcomed.

Suggesting a Marine Archaeological inventory for Hawai‘i
Eric Ferraro, Marine Option Program (MOP) Alumnus

As it stands, Marine Archaeology is somewhat of an undeveloped profession within the state of Hawai’i. To initiate more of an interest in this field of study, the creation of an inventory of potential marine archaeological sites throughout the main Hawaiian Island chain could be seen as the pedestal from which to take the first steps towards a hope to see this science begin to flourish in a region which is teaming with submerged cultural resources. Such a valuable cache of resources would be able to educate and inform the historical and archaeological records of a larger history which belongs to Hawaii and its inhabitants. The discussion here will focus on what the inventory is composed of, and what kinds of uses it may have towards the acknowledgement of this science. This presentation will also include potential proposed construction projects that may also assist with the acknowledgement of marine archaeology to the state, its residents and visitors.

The Pinnace Imi Loa
Pete Hendricks, MAHHI

Patterned after the naval workboats of the early 19th century, The pinnace Imi Loa is a piece of living history. The pinnace was a relatively light boat, propelled by sail and between 8 to 16 oarsmen. Imi Loa is a representative workboat of its era, as well as being a training vessel for today’s students learning traditional seamanship techniques. Noted architect Melbourne Smith, designer of revenue cutter California, privateer Lynx, and brig Naigara, drew up plans for Imi Loa. Rockport Marine, Rockport, Maine, built Imi Loa. Rockport Marine is one of the few remaining yards in the U.S. with a traditional shipbuilding heritage. We will follow the construction of Imi Loa at Rockport Marine, join her for sea trials in Hawaiian waters, and discuss her future as part of Hawaii’s rich maritime tradition. Imi Loa is a project of Woods Maritime, Kamuela, Hawaii.

Petroglyphs of Ships in the Hawaiian Islands
Rick Rogers, Pilialoha Consulting

Amongst the thousands and thousands of Petroglyphs in the Hawaiian Islands many were clearly made in the “post contact” period. Of these, about fifty are images of western style sailing ships. These unique rock-art forms offer various interpretations as why their artists chose the models, styles and locations for these maritime images. This paper will present a perspective on some of the unique attributes to these images and offer some insight into the artists’ experiences and meanings.

Welcome to the PRIAs: Maritime Inventory in the Remote Pacific
Hans Van Tilburg, NOAA Office of National Marine Sanctuaries

On August 25, 2008, a memorandum from the president entitled “Pacific Marine Conservation Assessment” instructed the federal agencies within the DOC and DOI to provide their assessment, with relevant supporting information, of objects of historic or scientific interest within the Pacific Remote Island Areas, or PRIAs: specifically, Johnston Atoll, Howland, Baker and Jarvis Islands, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Island, with the addition of Rose Atoll in American Samoa. (A similar request was made for the Northern Mariana Islands in the CNMI.) The PRIAs are under the jurisdiction of the United States, and are currently administered by the US Fish and Wildlife service as National Wildlife Refuges. During the final months of the last administration, these areas came under consideration for possibly forming a new marine national monument in the Pacific. As there has been little or no maritime archaeology survey in these distant locations, the beginnings of an inventory can only be drawn from the existing records of what has been lost there. This preliminary inventory naturally reflects not only the region-wide impacts of World War II, but also the footsteps of a relatively young country making inroads into the Pacific in the 19th century.

An Australian Coral Sea Heritage Park
Paul Hundley, Australian Maritime Museum

The Coral Sea islands are a group of small uninhabited tropical islands and reefs in the Coral Sea, east of Queensland, Australia. The Coral Sea Islands Territory was created in 1969 by the Coral Sea Islands Act. Prior to this Act the area was part of Queensland, having been annexed in 1872. The territory covers approximately 780,000 sq km, extending east and south from the outer edge of the Great Barrier Reef. The Coral Sea reefs are reached by a 12 to 18 hour boat trip east from the coast of mainland Australia. The Australian National Maritime Museum has collaborated with the Pew Environmental Trust in drafting a proposal to create an Australian Coral Sea Heritage Park. This is part of the Pew's Global Ocean Legacy program. Encouraged by the successful advocacy for the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the submission is currently being assessed by the Australian Government. Historically the Coral Sea was traversed by Australian vessels carrying exports to countries around the world. As well, vessels from every continent would cross this water body on their way to Australian ports to discharge their cargoes. The archaeological potential the Coral Sea holds to contribute to a better understanding of all aspects of maritime endeavour is tremendous. A search of the Australian National Shipwrecks database for known vessel losses within the coordinates of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea Islands Territory returns 667 shipwrecks identified through the historical records. When limiting the search to the Coral Sea there are 104 known shipwrecks. Of all these vessel losses, the remains of only eight have been located! Certainly there are opportunities to share information and management strategies based on the experience in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands that would relate directly to what would become the world's largest maritime sanctuary.

Stories to Tell
Ann Marie Kirk, Teleschool, Hawaii State Dept. of Education
Suzanne S. Finney, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai’i at Manoa

The Teleschool Branch has been working with students, professors and alumni from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa Department of Anthropology on 2 television series highlighting Pacific archeology. Both series are targeted for 7th graders across the state who study the Pacific as part of the curriculum standards for that grade. One of the shows is called Stories to Tell. Stories to Tell is a 9 part series telling the story of 4 whaling ships sunk during the US Civil War in 1865 in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. The whale ships were sunk by the Confederate raider the CSS Shenandoah. One of the whale ships sunk was the Harvest, a whaling ship whose homeport was Honolulu. Many people, especially our students, do not know the US Civil War was internationalized - going beyond the continental boundaries of the United States into the Pacific and around the world. This presentation will discuss the development of the program and the teacher resources which will available on the website.

The Voyages of the Pearl and Hermes: British Influences on the Pacific Whaling Trade
Kehaulani Kerr, Maritime Archaeologist

The history of Pearl and Hermes is of monumental importance to the British maritime history of colonial expansion and pelagic whaling, the South Sea whaling trade, and the migratory patterns of American Quakers. This maritime heritage of Hawaii and the Pacific reached its peak in the 1820s. The whaling trade in the Pacific Ocean developed in the Hawaiian Islands around 1819. When a team of maritime archaeologists affiliated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) discovered the Pearl and Hermes, they uncovered over 200 years of archaeological evidence. While the sandalwood and fur trade had declined by the 1820s, whaling became a lucrative market for the indigenous populations of Hawaii by providing a resting stop to re-supply the ships departing to and returning from the Japanese whaling grounds. The surviving history of ownership centers on the London South Sea trade and whalers from the Island of Nantucket, who had lost the London spermaceti market with England after the American Revolution. The shift to a hostile environment fueled economic and political agendas involving the British Parliament, Board of Trade, and London merchants. The historical narrative of the whaling trade involves England, France, and America, all of whom sought domination of this industry in the Pacific Ocean. These shipwrecks provide archaeological material on pelagic whaling of this period which represents early nineteenth century British material culture in a time when they were actively engaged in colonizing this part of the world. The launch of England’s colonial expansion into the Pacific Ocean underscores the significance of the technology of ships and associated whalecraft of the era.

The Beeswax Wreck of Nehalem Spit
Scott Williams, Naga Research Group

“Team Beeswax” returned to the Oregon Coast in April 2008 to continue the investigation of 17th century artifacts that continue to wash ashore there. In addition to more beeswax, for which the site has been named, and some 300 more sherds of Chinese porcelain, wooden artifacts have been added to the collection. This season’s field work has conclusively eliminated two other shipwreck sites as possible remains of the vessel in question. Scientific testing is being conducted on certain artifacts. Archival research has uncovered multiple historic documents concerning the vessels in question. Lessons have been learned about balancing community outreach and public media control. Artifact distribution plotting has led the team to suspect a much different location for the source of artifacts than had been previously assumed. A new remote sensing strategy has been developed and implemented.

New Findings on Navy TBF off Anacapa Island, California
Patrick Smith, Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (CMAR)

Shortly after the establishment of Channel Islands National Park in 1980, resource managers became aware of an aircraft wreck off Anacapa Island. Awareness of the aircraft, known as “the bomber”, was widespread in the local diving community, but information as to the location of the site was difficult to pinpoint. Several years later the Park Service in a joint project with Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (CMAR) and the assistance of local divers, the aircraft was located. Subsequently identified as a Grumman TBF Avenger of WWII vintage, the history and circumstances of how it came to its end in 130 feet of water off the Channel Islands was unknown. Initial investigation and research through government and military records provided no clues to the circumstances of the loss of this aircraft or the fate of its crew. Over the ensuing years, numerous dives to the site, some basic answers to the circumstances of this war-time loss were finally uncovered. Ongoing research has turned up additional information on the combat history of this aircraft and the crew at the time of the mid air collision that brought her end.

Seeking Equality in the new Canadian Society of 1880 to 1930
Elke Sundstrom, University of Victoria (Canada)

Maria Mahoi a woman of hawaiian/native american descent born around 1853 is representative of many other women like her in this time period who married into european society to reduce the racial prejudices endemic in the new Canadian society around 1880 after the British had departed. Having native american descent could deny them of getting ahead and maintaining their quasi equal status. They also insured their future sons and daughters a place in the dominant society. To maintain their status they submerged aspects of their identities such as their native american descent and even hawaiian descent when necessary.. It is only in the last 20 years that the great grandchildren have felt comfortable searching out their entire ancestry. Maria Mahoi lived and died by the ocean on the island which she owned. She had always hoped to visit Hawaii the birthplace of her father but this trip never came to fruition.

High Definition Survey of the George Olson, Coos Bay, Oregon
David Wellman, D. Wellman Surveying

For the 20 years before June 23, 1944 the George Olson carried lumber between Pacific Northwest ports. After that date it sat grounded on the north jetty at the Port of Coos Bay, Oregon. It ended up on what is called the north spit and eventually was covered by the ever shifting adjacent sand dunes. The hull appeared briefly in the 60’s only to be covered again until the re-appearance during the winter storms of 2007/2008. In March of 2008 D. Wellman Surveying coordinated with the Bureau of Land Management to perform a high definition 3D laser scan survey. A short presentation of the digital survey results of the exposed portions of the George Olson hull will introduce the power of collecting comprehensive 3D data for future marine archeological investigations. This case study will provide a platform for discussion of the technology, application, and benefits of 3D high definition surveys in similar situations.

Photographic Evidence of North Pacific Whaling and Trading Impacts on Iñupiaq
Communities of the Northwestern Arctic Alaska, 1881–1930
Susan Lebo, Independent Researcher

Historical photographs dating from 1880 to 1930 reveal that architectural traditions remained strong among Iñupiaq (Eskimo) villages along the coast of the North Slope Borough. During this time the Iñupiaq continued to use whalebone, driftwood, willow, and other traditional raw materials in their residential and community architecture. At the same time photographs show that they began to increasingly integrate into their traditional structures milled lumber, metal hardware, window glass, and other foreign building materials brought by whalers and traders sailing primarily from the ports of Honolulu, San Francisco, and New Bedford. They acquired these building materials through trade, purchase, and as payment in lieu of wages, as well as through the salvaging of shipwrecks.

19th Annual Symposium, February 16-18, 2008
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Welcome and MOP Update
Cindy Hunter PhD, Director Marine Option Program (MOP) (Systemwide) University of Hawai`i at Mānoa

The Ivanhoe Shipwreck, Port Allen, Kauai: Preliminary Results of ECU’s Fall Field School, 2007
Nathan Richards, PhD, Program in Maritime Studies, East Carolina University (Keynote) (RICHARDSN[at]ecu.edu)

This presentation outlines the results of preliminary historical and archaeological research on the life and remains of the iron-hulled sailing vessel Ivanhoe.  The ship, following its construction by the famous River Clyde shipbuilders John C. Reid and Company and a long life in a variety of trades around the world before its eventual loss at Port Allen, Kauai on Christmas Day, 1915 with a load of Chilean nitrate, an international crew, and two fatalities.  The site of the shipwreck was mapped in September of 2007 by students in the Program in Maritime Studies, East Carolina University with the assistance of NOAA personnel over a three-week period.  Ivanhoe also represents the initial archaeological site in a multi-year research initiative in the Program in Maritime Studies and the Coastal Resources Management Program focused upon the definition of traditions in Anglo-American iron and steel ship construction.

Lost Whaling Fleets of the Western Arctic
Hans Van Tilburg PhD, Maritime heritage coordinator, NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program (Hans.VanTilburg[at]noaa.gov).

During the latter half of the 19th century, whaling fleets from a variety of nations concentrated their efforts far to the north, among the bergs and ice pack of Alaska’s north slope.  This was one of the last refuges of the oil-rich Bowhead whale.  The harsh extremes found in the Arctic made the hunt particularly hazardous, and on two occasions, 1871 and 1876, whole fleets were trapped by the ice and crushed.  These losses marked the downfall of the American whaling effort, already in decline due to the impacts on marine mammal populations and the American Civil War.  Over the past several years, researchers associated with the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium have been conducting an archaeological and historical survey of some of these coastal and submerged sites related to the 1871 event in the Chukchi Sea.  Now NOAA seeks to work in collaboration with local researchers in Alaska, bringing new platforms and advanced underwater technologies to the ongoing investigation.  Ships conducting offshore magnetometer and side scan sonar surveys, and aerial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) flights will both provide essential information on what remains of these lost whaling vessels.

Sea Turtle Reverence and Natural Resource Availability: A test of Johannes’ theory of limited resources as a prerequisite for the development of traditional food prohibitions
Regina Woodrom Rudrud, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa (ReginaL[at]hawaii.edu)

Human colonization of the Pacific left concrete and archaeologically detectable evidence of the immediate decimation of easily exploitable species like reef and lagoon species such as sea turtles. Robert Johannes argued that some Pacific cultures used these initial impacts to learn that their marine resources were limited and furthermore such societies introduced marine conservation measures such as taboos (tapu, kapu) accordingly to ensure that such mistakes were not repeated.  He suggested that a review of relevant literature would show that societies that developed taboos relied on natural resources that were circumscribed and thus easily depleted and theorized that such conditions were most likely to be found in small, non-nomadic societies whose natural resources were circumscribed by geography. It is this hypothesis that was examined here. The results of this research do not support Johannes theory but rather suggest that the valuation of the sea turtle as a culturally and spiritually significant being elevated above most other marine organisms was not due to the environment which sustained the cultures involved, but to biological characteristics inherent in the sea turtle itself.

The Northern Atoll Arc and Sailing Strategies between West and East Polynesia
David Addison, Samoan Studies Institute, American Samoa Community College (add1ison[at]gmail.com).
Presented by Ben Finney, PhD

This paper examines the potential role of the Northern Atoll Arc (e.g., Tokelau, Phoenix Islands, Northern Cook Islands, Line Islands) in traditional sailing between West and East Polynesia. General southeast wind patterns allow sailing from Samoa to atolls to the north for much of the year. Analysis of daily wind patterns suggests the regular occurrence of periods favorable to “stepping-stone” voyaging between atolls and thence into high-island East Polynesia. This strategy would not have been available until atoll emergence ~1500 BP. The initial settlement of East Polynesia may have been more related to the timing of atoll emergence than to changes in voyaging technology.

Late 18th-Late 19th Century Trade in Hawaiian Feather Capes and Feather Cloaks, European Baize Cloaks, and Native American Seal Gut Cloaks
Susan A. Lebo, PhD Senior Archaeologist T.S. Dye & Colleagues, Archaeologists, Inc. (salebo[at]earthlink.net)

Status presentations, gifts, and exchanges between Hawaiian ali`i and early European visitors to the islands often included Hawaiian feather capes and cloaks and European baize cloaks. Historical descriptions, artist renderings, and extant capes and cloaks in museum and private collections offer an opportunity to examine variability in cape and cloak styles and changes in the nature of the ali`i-visitor interactions associated with them as symbols of status, sovereignty, diplomacy, and as "artificial curiosities".

Native Hawaiians and the Hudson’s Bay Company 1820 to 1930: Hawaiian contributions to the Maritime Industry
Elke Sundstrom, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (esundstr[at]uvic.ca)

Native Hawaiians who were employed by the Hudsonʻs Bay Company (HBC) contributed in major ways to the establishment of maritime industry and commerce on the Northwest Coast under British rule. By 1850, HBC employed 400 Hawaiians as deckhands and unofficial pilots on HBC ships, in commercial fishing, in logging and farming and as guards at forts that they helped build. They provided 3000 man-years of labor and were respected for their seafaring skills and other work they performed. HBC trade with Hawai`i produced $98,900 of income per ship voyage.  After the boundary negotiation between Britain and the US in 1849 most of the remaining Hawaiians moved north of the 49th parallel to Victoria, Saltspring Island and Fort Langely. Granted British citizenship (and later Canadian citizenship), they were able to vote, buy land and build houses. They started new lives and contributed to the British Columbia economy; especially in commercial fishing. Citizenship and the right to vote and buy land were denied the few Hawaiians who stayed south of 49th parallel and they were integrated into Native Indian reserves.

The USS Boston at Honolulu, 1892-1893
Don Froning, Vice-President MAHHI.

The USS Boston was the “B” of the “ABCD cruisers” that were commissioned in the 1880s, and were a significant step along the path of American naval evolution.  The Boston also participated in the famous Battle of Manila Bay in the Philippines at the outset of the Spanish American War in 1898.  The most significant events witnessed by the Boston’s crew, however, was the overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy in January 1893.  The Boston was on station at Honolulu Harbor for fourteen months, starting in the fall of 1892.  Troops from the Boston were ashore at the time of the overthrow.  It is clear that the presence of these troops influenced Queen Liliuokalani’s decision to step down, but there is disagreement still today as to the intended purpose of this landing force.  This presentation includes a brief overview of the Boston’s history, with a closer look at the fourteen-month Honolulu deployment, and the overthrow of the monarchy.

The Voyage of Kealoha. Length: 5 minutes

This video, adapted from material provided by the ECHO partners, is a dramatization based on the account of an actual voyage by Charles Edward Kealoha, a Native Hawaiian who traveled to Alaska in 1876-77 to participate in the Arctic whale hunt.  Records show that this year was one of the most disastrous for whaling crews in the Arctic; as a result of bad weather, 11 ships were lost and nearly 60 men died. Kealoha and another Native Hawaiian seaman were stranded for six months in an Iñupiaq village near present-day Barrow, Alaska, along the Beaufort Sea.

Na Mo`olelo o Kohola: Stories of Native Hawaiian Whalers in 19th Century Hawaiian Documents
Susan A. Lebo, PhD Senior Archaeologist T.S. Dye & Colleagues, Archaeologists, Inc. (salebo[at]earthlink.net)

Between 1819 and 1894, thousands of young Native Hawaiian men shipped aboard whaling vessels that voyaged to whaling grounds in the Arctic Ocean, off the coasts of Japan, the Pacific Northwest, California, and Peru, as well as the South Pacific, and the Indian and Atlantic oceans. These Native Hawaiian whalers served as unseasoned greenhands, as ordinary or able seamen, as boatsteerers, infrequently as mates, and at least one became a whaling captain. The names, vessels, and whaling experiences of many of these whalemen are preserved in part in countless family geneologies and stories, and in the extensive archival documents dating to the period. In this presentation, I provide a brief overview of Hawai`i's native whalers and their participation in the 19th century whaling industry, the historical documents in which their names and stories appear, and highlight two Hawaiian-language mo`olele recorded by Native Hawaiian whalers/traders written in the 1870s.

The Kiwai - Dugong Hunters of Daru. Location: Papua New Guinea; Subject: Documentary; Length: 50 minutes; Library Code: UHM AV/C VIDEOTAPE 15252

Description: This program chronicles the traditional lifestyle of the Kiwai, a group of seafarers and fishers living on the coast of Papua New Guinea. The Kiwai center their lives around the dugong, or sea cow, and their customs, magnetic practices, and beliefs are deeply involved with this endangered species. Modern methods are threatening the way of life of the Kiwai, as canoes with outboard motors hunt alongside traditional craft. This program follows the Kiwai through the complex rituals that rule the hunt, the chase, and the capture of the dugong. Narrated by David Attenborough.

Maritime Archaeology and History of the Hawaiian Islands Foundation (MAHHI) Update
Suzanne Finney President

This presentation will provide a brief summary of the activities of MAHHI in 2007 and what we hope to accomplish in 2008.

Cape Horn; a 42-day trip aboard an 18th century square rigger; the replica HMS Endeavour
Paul Atkins, Director/Cinematographer (Keynote) (PaulAtkins[at]aol.com)

From the arctic to the tropical Pacific, Paul Atkins has spent twenty  years capturing the world's cultures and wildlife for National  Geographic and some of the BBC's most successful series, including Planet Earth,  His internationally acclaimed cinematography and creative vision has earned him numerous Emmies, British Academy Awards and the prestigious Telluride Tributee award. In recent years, Paul has turned his cinematic attention to commercials and feature films, including Tides of War, Regent Cinema's first film production in Hawai`i, and The Land Has Eyes, which played the 2004 Sundance Film Festival and was Fiji's submission for Best Foreign Film to the Academy Awards.  On an epic 42 day voyage around Cape Horn aboard an 18th century square rigger, the replica HMS Endeavour, Paul filmed in 70-knot winds and 50-foot seas to produce the ocean storm footage for Master and Commander which won the 2004 Academy Award for Best Cinematography. This is the first time actual storm footage has been integrated into such a sequence – it makes it look bigger, more realistic, and lends a critical “you-are-there” feel to the epic scene. Paul will be showing "behind-the scenes" footage as well as shots from the finished movie to support this talk. Paul lives in Hawai`i with his wife (and fellow filmmaker) Grace.

Maui’s Deep Blue Raider Ghost
Raymond Boland, Obsessive Compulsive Diving (raymond.boland[at]noaa.gov)

As part of being successful in war, a country must have a strong industry that produces enough material to win that war.  During World War II, American industry exploded, producing huge amounts of ammunition, weapons, vehicles, ships and aircraft.  The most produced aircraft was the B-24 Liberator Bomber, with 18,482 being built before and during the war.  They served in every theatre and were used by the US Army Air Force, the US Navy and other allied forces.  Despite this staggering production number, few exist in the world today and none that were flown by the US Navy; except for one located in the waters off of Maui.  Discovered in 1986, this aircraft remains one of Maui’s closely guarded secrets.  Over the past 21 years, the history of this unique wreck site has slowly surfaced.  Identified as part of Navy Patrol Bombing Squadron 116 (VPB-116), known as the “Blue Raiders”; surviving members of the crew have been located.  In the past two years some of these crewmembers have been contacted and interviewed, providing valuable eyewitness information about what occurred and the history of that crew before, during and after the crash.

The Beeswax Wreck of Nehalem Oregon: Traces of the Manila Galleon trade are being investigated by the “Beeswax Wreck Project Team”
Scott S. Williams, West Area Cultural Resources Specialist, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA and Captain Richard W. Rogers (plialoha[at]hula.net)

Blocks of beeswax, planks of teak and shards of porcelain have been found along a stretch of oceanfront in Oregon for over three hundred years.  Native American tradition, pioneer stories and 20th century imagination have transformed an historical event into local tradition. The identity of the "Beeswax Wreck" of Nehalem, Oregon has been a matter of speculation until now. The artifacts found in various collections indicate the shipwreck is of Spanish origin, dating to the late 17th or early 18th century. Interviews with knowledgeable locals backed by historical documents have narrowed the search area for the hull of the vessel in question. In April, 2007 the "Beeswax Wreck Project" conducted a series of remote sensing surveys over several areas suspected to contain deposits of cultural artifacts from the shipwreck. Data gathered during Phase One of the project has helped narrow the search area and offered tantalizing clues to the identity of the "Beeswax Wreck" of Nehalem. We can now say with confidence the vessel is one of two Spanish galleons, and with further research we are confident we will identify which one.

Systematic Investigation of Deepwater Cultural Resources off South Oahu Using Submersible, Sidescan Sonar, and GIS Technologies
Terry Kerby, Christopher Kelley (ckelley[at]hawaii.edu), and Steven Price

A wealth of cultural resources exist in Hawaiian waters below surface diving depths and include both military and civilian airplanes, boats, ships, submarines, landing crafts, amphibious vehicles, and land vehicles.  Most wound up in deepwater as a result of military action, accidents, and intentional disposal.  As part of its annual submersible testing and training exercises, the Hawai`i Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) has been investigating their locations and conditions for decades.  A number of years ago, the acquisition of submersible-mounted search sonars and a towed sidescan sonar system greatly accelerated the rate at which these items are found.  With funding from the National Park Service, Ocean Explorations, and the National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP), HURL conducted additional sidescan surveys around Barbers Point and participated in a separate University of Hawai`i funded sidescan sonar mapping cruise in 2007.  Targets extracted from these surveys were investigated during September’s submersible training dives and found to include two unknown freighters and 1 military airplane.  The authors are presently creating a geographic information system (GIS) of all of the deepwater resources HURL has located to date for use by NMSP’s Maritime Heritage Coordinator. Hawai`i Undersea Research Laboratory.

68-year-old Mystery Solved Off West Oahu: The Discovery of Helldiver 0519
Chris Liles (chris_liles13[at]yahoo.com) and Joakim Hjelm, Island Divers Hawai`i/Hawai`i Technical Divers

Over the last century, the United States military has played a significant role in the history of Oahu.  Since the 1930’s, Oahu has been the homeport for the US Navy’s Pacific fleet and through the years there have been numerous losses of life as well as aircraft in the area.  Last year local divers and members of Hawai`i Technical Divers dive team, with the help of NOAA discovered and helped solve the mystery location of an aircraft lost off the USS Enterprise in 1939.  What were the events that led to the crash of 0519?  Who were the forgotten crew, “pioneers” for their generation of aviators?  What does the future hold for this newly discovered site?

Fact or Fiction: A case study of a Piracy Charge against Captain William Buckle of the Whaling Vessel Daniel IV
Victoria Creed (waihonaa001[at]hawaii.rr.com) and Isaaca Hanson (nalu_girl808[at]hotmail.com) with help from other Buckle family descendants

The sale and purchase of native Hawaiians in the 1800s - fact or  fiction?  The purchase of a native Hawaiian girl named Leoiki by Captain William Buckle of England in 1825 for 10 doubloons – worth $160 at that time, has been accepted, unchallenged and perpetuated by scholarly and fictional literature as "fact" for over 180 years.  In this paper, we provide a treatment of the cultural, legislative, social and interpersonal conditions behind the story of Captain William Buckle and Leoiki and challenge the standard interpretation by the missionaries of the "facts."

Sabotage at French Frigate Shoals: discovery of the schooner Churchill
Hans Van Tilburg PhD, Maritime heritage coordinator, NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program (Hans.VanTilburg[at]noaa.gov)

In August 2007 the NOAA maritime heritage team was able to begin a systematic investigation of a site initially discovered by the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Coral Reef Ecosystem Division in October 2005. The August 2007 survey uncovered clues that may help solve the mystery of the unidentified shipwreck. Based on data gathered during the expedition, researchers have deduced that the site, a turn-of-the-century wooden sailing ship, may likely be the four-masted schooner Churchill, which is known to have been lost in the area in 1917.  While the identity of the ship has not yet been conclusively determined, diagnostic artifacts at the site - including parts of the windlass, three large iron anchors, ship's pumps, and numerous blocks and rigging components - appear consistent with the 178-foot, 600-ton schooner.  She ran aground on a reef at French Frigate Shoals on Sept. 27, 1917. All members of her 12-man crew were rescued by a nearby vessel. Subsequently, the Churchill's crew filed affidavits charging Captain Charles Granzow with the intentional destruction of the ship. (A mysterious fire broke out after he had sent the others away in the small boats.) The captain was later arrested on charges of espionage.

Lost Fleet of the Rock Islands: the Search for Palau’s Sunken Japanese Ships

Subject: WW II, shipwrecks; Length: 30 minutes; Year Released: 1991; Producer: Bennett Marine Video; Library Code: UHM AV/C VIDEOTAPE 12217.

Description: Documents the efforts to research, locate, and explore the more than 50 Japanese ships sunk during the ‘Desecrate One’ air raid, March 30-31, 1944, in Palau.

Truk's Legendary Lagoon: A Voyage Back into Time

Location: Chuuk, Micronesia; Subject: Diving; World War II wrecks; Length: 30 minutes; Year Released: 1989; Producer: Casey Films; Library Code: UHM AV/C VIDEOTAPE 3409.

Description: An underwater look at the armada of Japanese ships sunk during World War II in Chuuk. After 25 years, the ghost ships have been transformed into one of the world's largest coral beds, with related marine life.

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18th Annual Symposium, February 19-21, 2007
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Resolving the Chronology of Human Colonization in Eastern Polynesia
Terry L. Hunt, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa

Establishing the history of human colonization into the farthest reaches of the Pacific Islands, to remote frontiers such as Hawai`i, Rapa Nui and New Zealand, has long occupied researchers.  Remarkably, dates for the first settlement of East Polynesia only now seem to be finding coherence, but significantly later than originally held.  In part we can explain this chronological divide of “early versus late” colonization by problems in the use of radiocarbon dating, including applications to palaeo-ecological contexts.  Resolving the chronology of human colonization in eastern Polynesia raises critical implications for prehistory, including issues of voyaging, subsistence, environmental impacts, and long-distance cultural connections.

Settlement of Western Oceania by accidental drift: A new perspective. [To view the article based on this talk visit: http://climate.uvic.ca/people/alvaro/alvaro_papers.html]
Chris Avis, Alvaro Montenegro, and Andrew J. Weaver, School of Earth and Ocean Science, University of Victoria

Settling the islands of Oceania required that thousands of kilometers of open ocean be crossed in stone-age vessels. This feat must surely rank among the most impressive achievements of mankind, but exactly how it occurred is unclear, since many uncertainties remain about the
navigation skills and about the vessels used at this time. Here we use a computer simulation to study the potential role of drift voyages in the discovery of new island groups in western Oceania. Contradicting early simulations, our results show that drift voyages can account for
all the major crossings in the are occupied before the ``long pause'' in eastward settlement, a region that extends from Near Oceania to Samoa. Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, at the eastern limits of this area, can only be reached by drifts under wind and current conditions associated with the El Nino positive phase.

Modelling the pre-historic arrival of the sweet potato in Polynesia. [To view the article based on this talk visit: http://climate.uvic.ca/people/alvaro/alvaro_papers.html]
Alvaro  Montenegro,  Chris Avis  and Andrew J. Weaver, University of Victoria - School of Earth and Ocean Science

The Sweet Potato is a plant native to the Americas but was found to be present in Polynesia in pre-historic times; explaining its presence is a long-standing anthropological problem. A computer-driven drift simulation is used to model the trajectories of vessels and sweet potato seed pods departing from the coasts of North, Central and South America and drifting under the influence of ocean currents and winds. The model uses  data from ocean and atmospheric re-analysis products with spatial and temporal resolution much higher than the environmental data adopted by previous voyaging simulations in the region. The experiments demonstrate that accidental drift voyages could have been the mechanism responsible for the pre-historic
introduction of the sweet potato from the Americas to Polynesia. While present results do not relate to the feasibility of a transfer by purposeful navigation, they do indicate that this type of voyaging is not required in order to explain the introduction of the crop into Polynesia.  The relatively high probability of occurrence and relatively short crossing times of trips from Northern Chile and Peru into the Marquesas, Tuamotu and Society groups are in agreement with
the general consensus that this region encompasses the area of original arrival and subsequent dispersal of the sweet potato in Polynesia.  Verifying the feasibility of seed drifts is complicated by the lack of data on the effects of sea water on seeds.

Polynesian Wayfinding in the Eastern Pacific ca 600 A.D.
Victoria S. Creed, Waihona ‘Aina Corp.

Polynesian voyaging involved planning every aspect of the venture - including catastrophes. Newly available translations of early oral traditions suggest that they also set up food-plant nurseries wherever our wayfarers went in order that emergency staples might be accessed when needed. Surprisingly, one credible native informant stated nurseries were established even in American coastal locations as well as over scattered islands along their travel routes, to which colonists could return for rootstock supplies to replenish those impacted by a variety of catastrophes. Recent scientific data provide evidence that seem to substantiate that Polynesians/Hawaiians had already explored the Pacific as far as the Americas perhaps as early as 600 A.D.

GIS Based Model for Assessing Lapita Aged Settlements on Tutuila Island, American Samoa
Alex E. Morrison, Tim Rieth, David J. Addison, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa

The lack of Lapita pottery recovered from archaeological deposits across the islands of Samoa has both fascinated and perplexed archaeologists for over 30 years.  Despite several well funded and extensive research projects aimed at discovering early settlement locations, only one locale (Mulifanua) has yielded Lapita decorated pottery.  Explanations for the absence of archaeological materials dating to this time period have often focused on geomorphological changes associated with tectonics and sea level.  These arguments suggest that the deposits are likely present but extremely difficult to locate; being either submerged under water or deeply buried beneath colluvial runoff.  Here we present a GIS model with two main goals: First, we model the Tutuila Island environment circa 2800 B.P.  We assess land availability at this time. Next we suggest a number of areas that are most likely to contain the earliest archaeological deposits on the island. Our model has ramifications for assessing a number of hypotheses regarding initial settlement of the Samoan archipelago.

Cultural and Environmental Impacts to Sea Turtle Populations in Micronesia: 3000 years of Reverence and Cultural Significance
Regina Rudrud, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa

This project considers sea turtle – human ecology in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) from the perspective of environmental anthropology. It will consider environmental risks to sea turtle sustainability, the cultural significance of sea turtles, the sea turtle as a continuing source of food for atoll populations and will use this cultural valuation to develop a sea turtle monitoring program and population baseline assessment for the RMI.  Our overall objective is to use these research results to enable traditional marine resource management techniques or develop culturally and socially appropriate new practices that will contribute to the sustainability of sea turtle use in the region. We are committed to ensuring the transfer of research results in appropriate and accessible formats to current populations; preserved for future generations of Marshallese.

“It is damned hart that we can’t have our wives aboard:” Prostitution and the 1826 Riot in Honolulu
Kealani Cook, University of Michigan

On February 19, 1826, the Sunday services held at the home of Kalanimoku, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hawai'i, were disrupted by a handful of sailors from the USS Dolphin.  Angered by Queen Ka’ahumanu’s decision to ban prostitution, the sailors attacked the man they held responsible, the Rev. Hiram Bingham, chasing him from the service and eventually laying siege to his home.   The riot, though a minor incident in the history of the Hawaiian Islands, illustrates a fundamental conflict between American conceptions of the inalienability of culturally-constructed “rights” and the sovereignty of the states Americans traveled to.  In this particular case the sailors involved came from a maritime tradition that conflated port prostitution and marriage. They did not just see the ban as limiting their access to prostitutes and sexual gratification; they saw it as a violation of their right to find “wives.”  This paper examines the role that prostitutes played in American and British maritime culture.  It argues that sailors reshaped the concept of marriage in order to allow them access not only to sexual partners, but also to the role of “husband,” which British and American culture dictated to be a normative aspect of masculinity.  Furthermore this paper argues that the fundamental American belief in the protection of individual rights provided the opportunity for the Dolphin’s men and her commander, Lt. John “Mad Jack” Percival, to challenge the sovereignty of the Kingdom.

Of Sea Serpents, Solitude and Seaburys: The Voyage of the Monongahela
Suzanne S. Finney, MAHHI

In 1850 the whaling ship Monongahela, 497 tons, left New Bedford for a whaling voyage to the North Pacific. The master on this voyage was Jason Seabury, youngest of eight and already an experienced seaman at the age of 28. Three years later the ship and crew were missing, presumed lost in the Arctic Ocean. This might be the end of the story if not for the collection of Seabury family papers in the New Bedford Whaling Museum Research Library. The letters and newspaper articles in the collection relating to this voyage represent a microcosm of 19th century society and highlight some of the difficulties confronting whalers involved with long voyages to remote areas.  As if the loss of the vessel is not mysterious enough, there is the unanswered question of what happened to the sea serpent supposedly killed by the crew and stored on board as proof of the encounter.  This presentation discusses the Monongahela voyage, including the reported capture of a sea serpent, and places the letters and newspaper articles within the context of 19th century expectations and beliefs.

In The Footsteps of Darwin- Brazil
Barbara Keating, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai`i

The H.M.S. Beagle visited Brazil in 1832, and spent much of the year in San Salvador, Bahia, a beautiful and ancient city set in a setting of luxuriant vegetation and the port of Rio de Janeiro, on the Atlantic Coast of South America.  The Atlantic crossing took 63 days.  Charles Darwin was the naturalist aboard the vessel.  Darwin wrote about the tropical forest with “delight” at the beginning of the cruise.  He wrote, “such a day brings a deeper pleasure that he can ever hope to experience again.”   The ship entered port at the Bay of All Saints in April.  Among other places the crew visited were Male (port), the Palace, and Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro.  The palace and cathedral rose out of the maze of narrow streets with the peak of Corcovado [mountain] soaring in the sky.  Charles Darwin hurried ashore and took up quarters in town with the expedition artist.  Within 7 days of arrival he happily accepted an invitation to travel by horseback, 100 miles north to a coffee plantation.  The vegetation, insects, birds, lizards, and etc. that he observed along the way enthralled him.  But, he was soon so sick with fever he thought he would fall from his horse.  At the plantation Darwin soon grew critical of the treatment of slaves.  Charles Darwin remained in Rio when his ship sailed north to survey the South American coastline.  While there, part of the ship’s party had gone on an excursion up the river from Rio, and succumbed to fever and 3 of his crew mates died.  In Rio, the ship’s surgeon left the expedition and was replaced by Benjamin Bynoe, a shipmate who befriended young Charles Darwin, and “did what he could” to relieve Darwin’s ever-lasting sea-sickness.  When it was time for the Beagle to sail on, Darwin likened it to “going into the grave.”  When the HMS Beagle returned to Bahia, after circum-navigating the world, in August 1836 Charles Darwin wrote,  “ this zig-zag manner of proceeding is very grievous; it has put the finishing touches to my feelings.  I loathe, I abhor the sea, and all ships which sail on it.”  Many of the sites visited by Naturalist Charles Darwin and artist Augustus Earle can still be seen today, as well as many of the unusual animals described by Charles Darwin.

MAHHI Update
Don Froning, Vice President, MAHHI Foundation

A summary of the Maritime Archaeology and History of the Hawaiian Islands Foundation’s activities in 2006, and a forecast of what is to come in 2007.

Current Legislative Issues Concerning Archaeology and Cultural Resource Management in Hawai`i
Sara Collins and Holly McEldowney, Hawai`i State Historic Preservation Division

No abstract available

Whaling Shipwrecks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Interpreting the Results of the Completed Phase 2 Survey of the Shipwreck Pearl at Pearl and Hermes Atoll
Kelly Gleason, Pacific Islands Region, NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program

Recent scientific expeditions to the NWHI (NWHI) emphasize the potential of whaling shipwrecks in this region, and provide new insight into the challenges of conducting field work at sites located on these remote atolls. In 2005, maritime archaeologists began to establish survey protocol for operations in these unique environments, and a recent expedition in 2006 revealed more information which enabled the completion of a Phase 2 archaeological survey of the Pearl, one of two whaling ships for which Pearl and Hermes Atoll was named. The Pearl is an important part of Pacific Islands Regional maritime history and tells the story of the transformation of the Hawaiian Islands with the opening of the Japan whaling grounds in 1820. Following a successful field season in 2006, several completed products including a site plan, GIS database and the ongoing analysis of diagnostic artifacts all contribute to a better understanding of this site, and its role in the whaling industry during the nineteenth century. Additional work completed in 2006 at the American whaling shipwreck site Parker provides some basis for comparison between American and British whaling ships operating in the Pacific in the early nineteenth century. Though archaeological fieldwork at the Pearl site is complete, interpretation and analysis continues as these sites begin to answer larger questions about the whaling industry in the Pacific during the nineteenth century.

The Sea Gives Up Her Secrets: the Reef Crest Maze of the USS Saginaw
Hans Van Tilburg, Maritime Heritage Coordinator, NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program

In October of 1870 the USS Saginaw wrecked at Kure Atoll, stranding 98 sailors on the most remote atoll island in the Pacific.  During their two-month sojourn, work parties attempted to salvage what they could from the site.  They had little else to do, and naval discipline ruled the island.  For the most part they were unsuccessful.  In January of 1871 Lieutenant Commander Montgomery Sicard, captain of the shipwrecked crew, justified the abandonment of government property: “There are not probably three days during the year when the sea is quiet, or when, in my opinion, it would be possible to work over any part without great danger…”  Fortunately, we had those three days during a recent research expedition on the NOAA ship Hi`ialakai, and recorded the Civil War era artifacts amidst the dramatic spurs and grooves of the marine topography.  Video imagery helps to portray conditions at the location.  Is it even possible to contemplate the standard mapping approaches in these high energy environments?

Violence Above and Below Decks: Theorizing the Dunnottar Castle
Hans Van Tilburg, Maritime Heritage Coordinator, NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program

The wreck of the iron hulled sailing ship Dunnottar Castle, discovered by DLNR staff at Kure Atoll in 2006, provides NOAA maritime archaeologists a challenging site to record and interpret.  Though site features are quite extensive, the basic methods of baseline trilateration and photo mosaic survey are well suited to inventory survey, and the simple logistics of getting time at the site represents the largest obstacle.  Asking the right questions which will lead us to a productive inquiry presents a higher level of challenge.  Though we romanticize the days of the last commercial sailing ships, the late 19th century was a time of brutal and increasingly hazardous working conditions for the merchant sailor.  Sailing ships grew larger and stronger, but were manned by smaller crews, as ship owners faced increasing competition with steamship lines.  Seamen, declared wards of the State and incapable of making a free contract, could be arrested for quitting their dangerous jobs, while American “bucko” mates used force to maintain control.  That was the culture on board.  Were these iron ships a mark of progress? Or were things moving backwards?  What kind of evidence at the site might support this hypothesis?

Bringing Home the Macon; Recording the Archaeological Remains of a “Flying Aircraft Carrier”
Robert V. Schwemmer, West Coast Regional Maritime Heritage Program Coordinator

USS Macon was the last U.S. built rigid airship and was constructed by Goodyear-Zeppelin Corp. in 1933. At 785 feet in length the dirigible was considered the largest of its design and was equipped to carry Sparrowhawk F9C-2 fighter biplanes. The remains of the Maconand her four aircraft rest at a depth of nearly one third of a mile in the near-shore waters of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The expedition to the Macon site is the first archaeological investigation within the boundaries of the sanctuary. NOAA’s National Marine Sanctuary Program and its partners are utilizing cutting-edge technology in order to document the site and to interpret it for the purposes of protection, management and public education. This paper will chronicle the efforts and technologies utilized to access, videotape, photograph, and create a photo-mosaic of this unique American flying aircraft carrier.

Trisha Drennan, Scientific Consultant Services, Inc.

In April of 2006 the “Southeast Maui Maritime Project”, aboard the Research Vessel Pilialoha, conducted a magnetometer and visual survey within the submerged portion of the “Ahihi-Kinau Nature Preserve” and La Perouse Bay.  The primary mission was to determine if remains of the steamship Bee were to be found within the boundaries of the nature reserve. Magnetic data was collected within the survey area and divers explored the one possible “hit”. Cultural remains were discovered but not those of the steamship Bee. Magnetic data, collected along the face to Maui’s most recent lava flow, may prove useful to geologists. The negative results of the search for the steamship Bee contributes to our growing data base of where shipwrecks are not to be found.

McGregor’s and Makena Landing
Richard W. Rogers, Pilialoha Consultants

 Goods flowing in and out of South Maui during the 19th century passed through two landings. McGregor’s Landing served shippers near the West Maui Mountain, while Makena Landing served those shipping from the southern flanks of Haleakala.  In April of 2006 The “South Maui Maritime Expedition” set out on the research vessel Pilialoha to document the cultural remains at these two abandoned ports and other sites of interest. Divers were able to complete a site map of the collapsed pilings and stumps at McGregor’s Landing. A second survey was conducted at Makena Landing, a few miles to the east. This survey of the exposed bottom features revealed piles of ballast stones and the possible remains of a shipwreck in the anchorage area of the small bay.  No excavation was conducted and no artifacts were removed from the survey areas during the 2006 season.

The Changing Shoreline near the Hilo Harbor
Thomas R. Wolforth, Scientific Consultant Services, Inc.

Reed’s Bay is a popular place for locals and tourists to enjoy the calm waters of Hilo Bay.  The County of Hawai‘i is in the process of expanding their facilities there to enhance that experience.  The archaeological and cultural resource investigations conducted as part of that process provides an opportunity to see beyond the splashing toddlers, and the small craft harbor, and reflect on how historical and pre-contact activities shaped the shoreline.

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17th Annual Symposium, February 18-20, 2006
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Oceania’s Canoe Voyaging Renaissance: Combining Cultural Revival and Research
Ben Finney, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i (bfinney[at]hawaii.edu)

Over the last 75 years junks, rafts and canoes have been sailed to, from, and among the Pacific islands to shed light on migrations theories, provide data and insights on sailing performance and navigation, and celebrate ancient seafaring achievements.  Oddly, however, the first projects, Eric de Bisschop’s 1930s attempts to drift-sail a junk from China to Polynesia, and Thor Heyerdahl’s drift-sail of the raft Kon-Tiki from Peru to the Tuamotus in 1947, ignored Oceanic canoes and voyaging traditions.  The focus shifted during the late 1950s and early 1960s, when Francis Cowan and Ben Finney separately built and tested Tahitian and Hawaiian sailing canoes as first steps toward reconstructing and sailing blue water voyaging canoes over Polynesia’s ancient migration and communication routes.  Since then Polynesian groups from several islands have built Hokule`a, Hawaikinui, Te Au o Tonga and Te Aurere and other modern versions of voyaging canoes, and have sailed them on long voyages throughout much of Polynesia.  Other groups from islands of Micronesia and Melanesia, where voyaging either never died out or did so recently enough so that aging canoe masters can still provide leaderships and guidance, have joined in this seafaring renaissance.  This paper recounts and analyses these developments, and serves as a prelude to the next two papers to be presented by Marianne George and Joe Genz from current projects to revive and research voyaging among the atolls of Micronesia’s Marshall Islands, and on the Polynesians outliers of Taumako and adjacent Reef Islands located in Eastern Melanesia’s Santa Cruz group.

Swell and Current Patterns in Marshall Islands Navigation:  A Preliminary Comparison of Indigenous and Oceanographic Perspectives
Joe Genz, Anthropology PhD candidate, University of Hawai`i (genz[at]hawaii.edu)
Ben Finney, Anthropology Emeritus Faculty, University of Hawai`i
Oliver Vetter, Oceanography MS student, University of Hawai`i
Mark Merrifield, Oceanography Professor, University of Hawai`i

The Marshall Islands system of navigation is based on distinctive swell and current patterns.  Most explanations of this system, which derive from a report by the German sea captain Winkler in 1898, focus on the role of swell refraction.  However, a preliminary model created by University of Hawai`i oceanographers indicate that the underwater topography of the atolls in the Marshall Islands is too steep for refracted swells to extend beyond sight range of the islands (10 nautical miles).  Yet, Marshallese navigators are said to be able to detect refracted swells, and interference patterns between them, well beyond the sight range of atolls. We are working on a collaborative navigation project called Kapeel in Meto (indigenous knowledge of the ocean) with Waan Aelon in Majel (Canoes of the Marshall Islands) and master navigator Captain Koren Joel to develop a computer model of the salient swell and current patterns surrounding Majuro Atoll, which may involve a complex interplay of swell reflection, diffraction, and bathymetry- and current-induced refraction. We present a preliminary comparison of indigenous and oceanographic perspectives on the swell and current patterns used in Marshallese navigation.

Voyaging Stories and Descriptions of Two Polynesian Ariki Who Sailed Extensively Aboard Vaka o Lata Canoes During the Last Century
Marianne George, Vaka Taumako Project

Because deep sea voyaging disappeared so quickly in the main islands of the Polynesian triangle we have virtually no systematic and detailed accounts of how Polynesians there built, sailed and navigated their deep-sea canoes.  Fortunately, however, because the people of the remote Polynesian outliers of Taumako and the Outer Reef islets of the Santa Cruz Islands (located between the Solomons and Vanuatu) kept voyaging until the 1960s, surviving Polynesian voyagers from these islands can still recount in detail how they built, sailed and navigated their canoes in this part of the Western Pacific. This paper focuses on the recollections, explanations and demonstrations provided to me from 1993 through 2005 by a pair of venerable voyagers from these islands: Paramount Chief K. K. Kaveia and great, great, great grandmother Joslyn Sale, whose experiences and recollections date from early 1900s. They provide systematic accounts of building, sailing and navigating voyaging canoes, and their use in the red feather money trade of the Santa Cruz group, as well for sailing to more distant islands. These shed light on: the design of  vaka o Lata voyaging canoes; how they are made and by whom: how they are handled in storm conditions; strategies and motivations for voyaging; how the wind compass is used as the true Polynesian system of navigation; what te lapa is and how it is used for landfinding; as well as the reasons why these skilled sailors ceased traditional voyaging in the 1960s and then started building them again in 1997. In addition, they recall such events as: arriving by canoe at Taumako Island during the 1918 flu epidemic, which killed all but 37 of the island’s people; attending the 1935 meeting of all Ariki (chiefs) at Vanikoro, when they decided to use British currency instead of traditional red feather money except for marriage gifts and the purchase of canoes; and, during the 1970s and early 1980s, the demands of the external government that the people build voyaging canoes for government ceremonial and cultural purposes, despite the fact that they themselves had been prohibited from building and sailing them for their own use.  These chiefly voyagers offer an unprecedented window on active Polynesian voyaging in the Santa Cruz group, long after long-distance sailing had ceased within the Polynesian triangle.

Caroline Islands Canoe Connections to the Philippines: Accidental or Purposeful?  CANCELLED
Francisco Datar, Academy for Culture and Education (yapheadstart[at]mail.fm)

Oral history of the Yapese mentions the connection between the Philippines and the Caroline Islands of what is now the Federated States of Micronesia's State of Yap. Preliminary investigations indicate that there is possibly a connection. A lineage in Samar, Philippines with the surname of Dagsa (swept away) claims descent from ancestors that came from out in the Pacific (some believing Palau).
  This paper proposed the utilization of methodologies to establish the connection between the two cultures. Multi-disciplinal expertise will be employed to analyze the different bodies of data. The paper will also discuss the proposal to test the hypothesis that this Caroline Island-Philippines connection was always merely a case of bad weather conditions that swept away Caroline Island travelers and fishermen to the shores of eastern Philippines; but rather that Carline Island Yapese (not necessarily just Palau Islanders) with their maritime expertise, intentionally came to the Philippines either to trade or to exploit Philippine marine and other resources. Further the possibility that such travel existed well before the coming of the Spaniards will also be carefully examined as well.
  Some completed initial work in relation to records of the Catholic Church in the Philippines, Samar area sites visits, and an initial limited sample of oral histories will be presented as background information for the new detailed research undertaking.
  The detailed plan for oral, historical, socio-cultural, linguistic, archaeological, and biological data gathering and analysis to further evaluate this Caroline Islands-Philippine connection will also be detailed.

Our Voyaging Ancestors
Nainoa Thompson

Nainoa Thompson, navigator and sail master of the double-hulled canoe Hokule'a, has for more than 25 years inspired and led a revival of traditional arts associated with long-distance ocean voyaging in Hawai`i and throughout Polynesia.  Mr. Thompson has developed a system of way-finding, or non-instrument navigation, synthesizing traditional principles of ancient Pacific navigation and modern scientific knowledge.  He is the first Hawaiian and the first Polynesian to practice the art of wayfinding on long distance ocean voyages since such voyaging ended in Hawai`i around the 14th century.

Is there a "Voyaging" Period in the East Polynesian Archaeological Sequence? CANCELLED
Robert Bollt, University of Hawai`i (bollt[at]hawaii.edu)

This paper examines the earliest securely dated archaeological sites in East Polynesia in terms of a proposed voyaging model that makes a strong distinction between initial discovery and exploitation, and permanent settlement.  The truly earliest sites in East Polynesia all date from the 11-12th centuries AD, and are generally rich in bone, especially bird bone, and contain few or no artifacts.  On the other hand, most early artifact bearing sites date from the late 13th-early 15th centuries AD, and exhibit a striking homogeneity in terms of material culture, and bird bone become much more scarce.  This paper tentatively proposes that the non-artifact bearing layers and sites are possibly representative of a "Voyaging" period during which natural resources were being exploited and permanent settlement ware rare.  The later artifact bearing layers and sites are interpreted as definitive permanent settlement sites, and the homogeneity in material culture can be explained by the idea that cultural differentiation had not yet occurred between the archipelagoes.

Organization Update: Marine Option Program
Jeff Kuwabara, Manoa MOP Coordinator, Marine Option Program (mop[at]hawaii.edu) http://www.hawaii.edu/mop/

NOAA's Pacific Islands' Maritime Heritage Program 2005
Hans Van Tilburg, Pacific Island Region Maritime Heritage Program, NOAA ONMS (Hans.VanTilburg[at]noaa.gov), http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/maritime/

It’s time again for an annual update, and the Maritime Heritage Program has had a busy year.  Featured projects for the Pacific Islands regional office in 2005 include: magnetometer survey and new shipwreck discoveries at French Frigate Shoals, site work on the 19th century whaling wrecks at Pearl and Hermes Atoll and Kure Atoll, diagnostic artifacts recovered and conserved, the continuing mystery of the navy tanker Mission San Miguel at Maro Reef, data collection and site assessment at the Japanese midget sub off Pearl Harbor, laser scan of Sakamaki’s HA-19 at Fredericksburg Texas, completion of a maritime heritage brochure, bookmark, and short film entitled History beneath the Waves: Maritime Heritage in the Hawaiian Islands, a web site launched, a second maritime archaeologist hired, plans for the NOAA facility at Ford Island underway, dives with the National Park Service, a Maritime Heritage Educator’s national conference.  This presentation covers in brief some highlights from the past year.  The multiple choice quiz at the end of the talk is optional.

Beachcombing, Magnetometers and Hooka Diving: Expeditions to a 16th Century Shipwreck in Baja, California.
Rick Rogers, Pilialoha (plialoha[at]hula.net)

Ming-era porcelain sherds on a beach in Mexico have led a team of archaeologists from the U.S. and Mexico to conclude that they have identified the shipwreck of a 16th century "Manila Galleon", the highest probability being the "San Felipe" missing since 1576. In 2003 the site was further defined by identifying the location of artifacts that had once been attached to the hull of the vessel. Magnetometer surveys on land and in the adjacent waters identified five distinct anomalies. An under-water dredging device was used in conjunction with a surface supplied air supply to remove tons of sand matrix above the only accessible anomaly.
  This paper will discuss the methodology, difficulties and results of this endeavor.

Ancestors from the East: What, More Junks?
Hans Van Tilburg, Pacific Island Region Maritime Heritage Program, NOAA ONMS (Hans.VanTilburg[at]noaa.gov), http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/maritime/

Throughout most of history the direction of Chinese imperial ambition was south.  The throne faced south, the mariner’s compass was oriented to the south, the main city gates faced south, and to the south lay the entrepots of Southeast Asia and trade routes to the Indian Ocean.  However, there were East Asian junks on the Pacific in a number of different contexts through the centuries.  Intentionally or otherwise, junk sailors made the far shore of the Americas.   The traces of these voyages come down to us in the form of myths and legends, observations and reports, photographs and fairs, and yes even archaeological evidence.  What do these incidental voyagers tell us?  This presentation takes a peek at the odd tale of junks on the Pacific.  Could that include Admiral Zheng He’s Ming Dynasty galleons?

MAHHI Update: NAS Certification in Hawai`i
Suzanne Finney, Maritime Archaeology and History of the Hawaiian Islands Foundation (finney[at]mahhi.org), www.mahhi.org

In September 2005 MAHHI entered into an agreement with the Nautical Archaeology Society (NAS) to offer NAS training courses in Hawai`i. These training courses provide those interested in maritime archaeology the opportunity to receive instruction in basic techniques including survey, photography and mapping. Advanced training is also available. This presentation gives a brief overview of the activities of the organization in the past year and describes the training courses that will be offered by MAHHI beginning in Summer 2006.

In the footsteps of Charles Darwin- the Galapagos Islands
Barbara Keating, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai`i (bkeating[at]hawaii.edu)

Charles Darwin visited the Galapagos Islands in 1835, after nearly 4 years at sea on the H.M.S. Beagle.  The ship had completed mapping surveys of the western coast of South America, sailing from Lima, Peru and continuing on to the Society Islands (Tahiti, twinty-five days of sailing south).  The ship spent 36 days in the island chain, and Charles Darwin and 4 shipmates were able to visit 9 sites on the 4 largest islands of the group, and spent 19 days ashore.  Each of the shore party was responsible for collecting plants, animals, insects, and rocks.  The birds of the Galapagos Islands and the tortoises were of particular interest to Darwin, but he spent much of his time ashore studying the volcanoes of the islands. 
  Darwin saw his first volcanic craters on these islands.  He estimated there were at least 2000 volcanic craters present on the flanks of the islands.  He remarked on their shape and distribution and observed that they were often asymmetrical in height due to the trade winds.  Because the islands are arid and have scarse vegetation along the coastlines, Darwin remarked that nothing could be less inviting than his first glimpse of the islands.  He also described the lava fields as "a sea petrified in its most bloiserous moments nothing can be imagined more rough and horrid."
  Darwin was first informed of the uniqueness of species on different islands by Mr, Lawson the Vice-Governor.  And, nine months later he reflected on the variations in life forms he observed in the Galapagos Islands (as recorded in his field notebooks).  It was only after shore studies in England that the nature and distribution of various species became evident based upon on the collections made during the voyage.  Charles Darwin spent the remainder of his life studying the rich data and collections associated with the Voyage of the Beagle. 

New Research on Submerged TBF Aircraft in Channel Islands National Park
Patrick Smith. Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (Subarch[at]aol.com) (Presented by Don Froning, MAHHI)

Shortly after the establishment of the Channel Islands National Park in 1980, resource managers became aware of an aircraft wreck off Anacapa Island.  Awareness of the aircraft, known as "the bomber", was widespread in the local diving community, but information as to the location of the site was not made available to Park Service staff.  Several years later, in a joint project with Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (CMAR) and the assistance of local divers, the aircraft was located.  Subsequently identified as a Grumman TBF Avenger, the history and circumstances of how it came to its end in 130 feet of water off the Channel Islands was unknown.  Initial investigation and research through government and military sources provided no clues to the circumstances of the loss aircraft and its crew.  This paper will introduce recent research that may finally provide the answers that have eluded investigators for so many years. 

Pacific Warfare Archaeology: The World War II Maritime Landscape of Northern Queensland, Australia
Bradley L. Garrett, James Cook University,
Queensland, Australia (brad[at]archaeologyunderwater.com)

This paper examines the maritime World War II landscapes and seascapes of the Townsville area in North Queensland, Australia. Topics to be addressed include militaristic maritime cultures, maritime landscapes, legislation and management of submerged World War II heritage.
  Building upon research conducted by the maritime archaeology department at James Cook University in the summer of 2005, this paper deconstructs multiple components of what has become an integral part of Australia’s maritime history. Current archaeological and heritage site management is examined in both terrestrial and maritime contexts, allowing for comparisons which reveal inherent state level bias toward terrestrial World War II sites regardless of cultural significance.  
  A magnetometer survey was conducted in Cleveland Bay, just outside of Townsville, to locate a Douglas C47 carrier jet which crashed in 1943, killing all 23 United States soldiers on board. This was Australia’s 5th worst air disaster. Despite this, the site, the war grave of these soldiers, has been offered no protection by the city, state, or federal governments. Current management policies toward World War II sites in Queensland must be reanalyzed in order to address issues of proper site management. 
  Finally, this paper will articulate the importance of public participation in research endeavors regarding the archaeology of Pacific warfare, and highlights the significance of maritime World War II sites to living communities.

What Can the Battles of Kamehameha Tell Us About the Archaeological Expression of Ancient Hawaiian Battlefields?
Thomas R. Wolforth, Scientific Consultant Services, Inc. (wolfortht001[at]hawaii.rr.com)

Many battles were fought in Hawai`i in the centuries prior to the reign of Kamehameha.  The location of some battles is relatively well known.  Most are not.  Yet even at those few places where the battle location can be established, we have little information on where armies camped before and after the battle, how the opposing armies situated themselves on the landscape, how they advanced and retreated, how and where they treated the slain, and other mundane and dramatic aspects of the engagement. 
  Archaeological investigations have proven fruitful in documenting these kinds of aspects of military encounters that have occurred for centuries past all over the world.  The archaeology of Hawaiian warfare has focused on luakini heiau, refuge caves, and weaponry, but not on the place of battle.  Given the nature of Hawaiian warfare, it is recognized that archaeological manifestations of battles are not going to be obvious, but that does not mean that they do not exist.  The challenge is to find ways to get at the archaeological data that this type of site has created. 
  One approach to understanding how ancient armies moved around a battlefield is to study how more recent battles unfolded.  Kamehameha fought in or directed over a dozen battles in the decade long campaign to rule the island of Hawai`i, beginning with the battle at Moku`ōhai, and culminating in the Battle of the Red Mouthed Gun (Kepūwaha`ula`ula).  This paper briefly addresses the status of the archaeology of Hawaiian warfare, and tells the story of the battles that Kamehameha fought on the island of Hawai`i between 1782 and 1792. 

Brig Lady Washington's Hawaiian Odyssey, 1794-1796 CANCELLED
Jim Mockford (mockford[at]teleport.com)

American Brig Lady Washington made several voyages to Hawaii in the mid-1790s. It was the first American flag vessel to enter the Pacific and begin fur trading on the Northwest Coast under the command of Robert Gray in 1788. As consort vessel to the Columbia Rediviva commanded by John Kendrick the Lady Washington was originally rigged as a sloop and made its first visit to Hawaii as a sloop en route to China. But the story of the Lady Washington’s visits to Hawaii after conversion to brig in 1790 led the author to the examination of the Hawaiian voyagers who sailed with Americans during the last decade of the 18th century. Captains Gray and Kendrick switched command of their respective ships in 1789 and it was Robert Gray who arrived in Hawaii first on Columbia Rediviva. Two Hawaiians were invited to join the Americans on their return voyage to Boston and Otoo and Opai also became the first Hawaiians to circumnavigate the world.
  This paper is not only about the first Hawaiian men to sail across the Pacific on American tall ships but it will examine the voyages by two Hawaiian women, Rahina and Timarroe who sailed in 1792 on the English Brig Jenny to Nootka Sound and at the request of Captain Baker were transferred to George Vancouver’s Discovery for return to the Hawaiian Islands in 1793. While on the American west coast Rahina and Timarroe introduced the Hula to a joint meeting of British and Spanish officers and their wives described by the author in his essay, "Dance and Diplomacy at Nootka Sound and Monterey in 1792" published in Noticias del Puerto de Monterey: Quarterly Bulletin of the Art and History Association of Monterey (2003). In 1796 Captain Broughton of HMS Providence mentioned the two women by name in his journal as he recognized the Rahina and Timaroe from having witnessed their hula at Monterey in 1792 when he served as Lieutenant and Commander of HMS Chatham under Vancouver. Broughtonʻs voyage journal also provides documentation of the visit of Lady Washington to Hawaii in 1796 that was the last visit by the ship to Hawaii before it sank in a storm on the Philippine coast in 1797. The story of the Lady Washington in Hawaii from the time of Captain Kendrickʻs death at Pearl Harbor in 1794 to its last visit in 1796 is gradually becoming known through the examination of other ship logs from that era.

Hawaii Shipping News: Anecdotes from the Archives
Peter Mills, University of Hawai`i - Hilo (millsp[at]hawaii.edu)

Over the last decade, the presenter has had the opportunity to conduct research in Mainland archival collections at the Bancroft Library (Berkeley), Kendall Whaling Museum (New Bedford, Mass), Massachusetts Historical Society (Boston), Houghton and Baker Libraries (Harvard), Phillips Library (Salem, Massachusetts), and at the Nantucket Historical Association archives, specifically to compile unpublished information from early 19th century ships’ logs pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands.  Many of the logs’ entries provide insights into the changing nature of life on Hawaiian shores that are not readily apparent from other more widely circulated and cited historical texts.  Several anecdotes from the logs are presented with a discussion of their anthropological significance. 

The Mahukona Harbor Steamship Site: An Archaeological History, and "Is It the Steamer Kauai?"
Donald Froning Jr., Maritime Archaeology and History of the Hawaiian Islands Foundation (froning[at]mahhi.org) www.mahhi.org

Every ship has a history; every shipwreck has a history as well.  With regard to shipwrecks that have been investigated archaeologically, it is sometimes easy to think in terms of a direct transformation of the site from the time the ship was wrecked to the time the wrecksite was investigated, but of course this is not the case.  The process is gradual, and the process continues beyond the time of the archaeological investigation.
  Many people believe that the steamship site at Mahukona Harbor, on the Kohala Coast of Hawai`i Island, is the remains of the Steamer Kauai which sank at Mahukona Harbor in December 1913.  In the first portion of this presentation, I will show what is known about the sinking of the Steamer Kauai, and what is known of the history of the Mahukona Harbor Steamship Site, including a chronology of the archaeological investigations.  In the second portion, I will suggest what conclusions, if any, may be drawn from the archaeological, historical, and oral evidence regarding the identity of the wreck.

Boat of No Specific Bow or Stern
Ata Atun, Samtay Foundation (mail[at]samtay.com)

The design concept of one of the sailing boats of our voyaging ancestors has no fixed bow or stern. This concept of at least two thousand years old, may open up a new era in the form of sailing boats and fishing boats, propelled by wind. 
There are no forward and aft perpendiculars and the keel itself turns in to perpendiculars at both ends.
The curvature of the keel is absolutely symmetric at amidship and both sections are in duplicate hyperbolic shape, touching each other on the tip of x-axis.  The keel is constructed as a bar keel type.
Transversely the cross section is symmetric at centerline and both halves are in identical parabolic shape, crown downwards.
The mast is placed right in to the geometric center of the boat, longitudinally and transversely. The sail is in rectangular form.
There is no fixed rudder and an oar with a uniformly wider end is used as a rudder. Inverted hooks are placed on the starboard side of each end and the rudder is slipped in according to the direction of sailing and wind.
The speed of this unique boat, I believe, topped 9 knots from time to time with no fear of capsizing.   
Block coefficient, Waterplane area coefficient, Midship section coefficient, Longitudinal prismatic coefficient and Vertical prismatic coefficient of this boat reveals very interesting and interrelated ratios.
The depth, draft and freeboard ratios are worth to study to find out the physical features leading to high speed and almost non capsizing stability, which is almost impossible to achieved in our modern time.

Human Impacts on Hawaiian Seabirds: Resource Use at Nu`alolo Kai, Kaua`i
Kelley Esh, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i (esh[at]hawaii.edu)

Seabirds have always been an important resource for colonizers of the Pacific as a food item, for feathers, and as an indicator of land to voyagers.  Unfortunately, human colonization of islands is also strongly associated with the population decline, extirpation, and extinction of native birds.  This paper will explore prehistoric resource utilization of seabirds at Nu`alolo Kai, a coastal settlement on the Nā Pali coast of Kaua`i, in an attempt to more thoroughly understand past human-bird interactions at this particular site.  The analysis of the avifaunal material focuses on subsistence change and resource depression, as well as examining temporal changes in associated material culture (i.e., bird bone tools).  In addition, the relevance of these analyses to long-term management of modern seabird populations will be considered.

Material Remnants of War in Roviana: exploring responses, tourism potential, and implications for archaeology
Erika Stein, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia (erika[at]archaeologyunderwater.com)

The Pacific Islands have certainly experienced a vicissitude of European-Islander contacts, from interactions with Captain James Cook to Christian missionaries to the slave and labor trade.  None of these encounters, however, have left such a multitude of material remains as did the Second World War, but how have the people that live amongst them responded to such remains?  This paper will explore how Solomon Islanders of the Roviana Lagoon have responded to the post WWII landscape and the materials within it, particularly by investigating how Roviana people have appropriated the post-war landscape and the material remnants within it.  The study has endeavored to do this through ethnographic research, most of which comes from a single village in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands called Sasavelle, an old American war base.  The theme of salvaging arises through these investigations and is important to note as it currently is a zeitgeist in the field of maritime archaeology.  The paper will also go over a further extension of re-appropriation by looking at past undertakings of World War II tourism in the area as well as the potential for further community-based war tourism that aims to bring money into villages at the local level.   In documenting this, it is hopeful that a larger understanding is obtained on how the Second World War affected the people of the Pacific Islands while there is still first-hand ethnographic research to gain.

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16th Annual Symposium, February 18-20, 2005
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Sherwood Maynard, Marine Option Program, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa
   Michael W. Graves, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa

Suzanne S. Finney, MAHHI Foundation 

Putting the Public Underwater: New Education Opportunities with the USS Arizona
Annalies Corbin and Andrew Hall, PAST Foundation

In the fall of 2004, the PAST Foundation partnered with the Submerged Resources Center of the U.S. National Park Service to present a web-based feature on efforts to preserve the wreck of USS Arizona. By combining historical accounts of the disaster, information on Park Service's efforts to assess and preserve the wreck, video clips and daily updates from scientists in at the site, the PAST Foundation was able to provide both news and context about the work being done. During the first month after the project went online, over twenty thousand individual web pages and an estimated seventy thousand images related to the project were downloaded by visitors to the website. Given USS Arizona's status as a protected war grave and the long-standing prohibitions on diving there, the NPS/PAST Foundation website offered visitors an effective, alternative means of seeing how archaeologists work, and a better understanding of why that work serves the public interest.

Science For Stewardship: Interdisciplinary Research on USS Arizona
Matt Russell, Submerged Resources Center, National Park Service

The National Park Service’s Submerged Resources Center and USS Arizona Memorial are conducting and coordinating research directed at understanding the nature and rate of natural processes affecting the deterioration of the USS Arizona in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The USS Arizona Preservation Project is designed to be multi-year, interdisciplinary and cumulative, with each element contributing to developing an overall management strategy designed to provide the basic research required to make informed management decisions for long-term preservation and minimize environmental hazard from fuel oil release. The primary project focus is toward acquiring requisite data for understanding the complex corrosion and deterioration processes affecting Arizona’s hull, both internally and externally, and modeling and predicting the nature and rate of structural changes. This research program is designed to be a cumulative progression of multi-disciplinary investigative steps. Multiple lines of evidence are being pursued simultaneously, each directly or indirectly linked to the others and to the overall project objectives. This project is an example of government agencies, academic institutions, military commands and private institutions working together effectively for public benefit. The USS Arizona Preservation Project is designed to serve as a model because it will have direct application to preservation and management of historical iron and steel vessels worldwide and to intervention actions for other leaking vessels.

More Than Pretty Pictures: The Central Role of Videography in Deep Water Archaeology
Dennis Aig, Montana State University/PAST Foundation

Deep water exploration technology has transformed video from a purely recording medium to a major data collection resource. With the increased use of Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs) for deep water work, the ROV video cameras and the signals they send back to the ships have become the collectors of primary scientific data. In both 2003 and 2004, PAST documentary teams worked with groups of scientists examining deep water wrecks the deepest at 6500 feet -in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper will discuss the challenges this new role for videography presents as well as the emerging possibilities for greater public outreach and participation in archaeological expeditions. 

Exhibits Beyond Borders
Sheli O. Smith, PAST Foundation, and Paul Hundley, Australian National Maritime Museum

Applying technology and collaboration makes it possible for exhibits to go beyond the single museum venue and reach many more people than traditionally possible. This is especially important to archaeology as we endeavor to engender a worldwide sense of stewardship.

Alexo de Castro, An Inquisitional Sinner: Crossing the Pacific from Manila to Mexico in 1646 and Beyond
James Tueller, Associate Professor of History, Brigham Young University-Hawaii

On April 24, 1646 Alexo de Castro appeared before the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Mexico City for suspicion of following the false sect of Muhammad. In the history of Spain and its Empire, Castro’s story is extremely unusual and illustrative of the voyaging connections across the Pacific Ocean in the early modern world. Castro was not from the Mexico, or anywhere else in the American continents. His father was a Galician from Spain and his mother was from Tidore in the Spice Islands. He was first accused of practicing Muslim rites in 1643 while living in Manila with his Christian wife. After initial investigations, he was sent to Mexico on the trans-Pacific galleon trade. The ships sailing between Acapulco and Manila connected East Asian markets with American worlds, catching Castro in between.

This paper will examine the life of Alexo de Castro, a half-caste Spaniard and Malay who fought as a soldier for both the kingdoms of Portugal and Spain. His story illuminates the connections and trangressions that crossed the early modern Pacific Ocean.

The Manila Galleon and the Mariana Islands: Transpacific Maritime Commerce and the Transformation of an Indigenous Pacific Society
Frank Quimby, Public Information Specialist, U. S. Department of the Interior

The Manila to Acapulco galleon trade (c. 1570 to 1815) brought the first sustained contact between Western and Pacific island peoples and provided the opportunity for the first European colonization of an indigenous Pacific society. The trading line, which completed the earliest version of the global economy by commercially linking America and Asia, became associated with the Mariana Islands because of geography: the islands were the western terminus of the trade winds sailing route (along the Equatorial Counter Current) from Central America. From Legaspi onward, Spanish seafarers and traders used the passage between northern Guam and southern Rota as a navigation checkpoint and replenishing station on their way to the Spanish trading colony in the Philippines. On the return route, the galleons usually sailed far north of the Marianas, but if the ships had been damaged by storms, they occasionally stopped at Guam, Rota or Saipan for repair.

The first major phase of significant cultural interaction between the Spanish and Chamorro people of the Marianas was a flourishing trade. The ships needed water, food and firewood after the long and arduous westward crossing. The Chamorros were eager to trade these supplies for iron from nails and barrel hoops to knives, cutlasses and guns. This trade which the islanders conducted from their sailing canoes as the galleons slowly drifted through the Guam-Rota passage was carried on regularly for more than a century, from the inception of the line to the late 17th century. The success of the trade, which enriched the Chamorro clans and villages most adept at it, led to more intense cultural interaction when occasional shipwrecks stranded hundreds of Spanish, Filipino and Mestizoes in the Marianas for lengthy sojourns.

In the second major phase of cultural interaction, the galleon line provided the vehicle for Spanish clerics to open a new field of evangelical endeavor in the Marianas. An influential Spanish Jesuit with ties to the Royal Court dedicated himself to the islands conversion after stopping at the Marianas on the galleon trip to his Philippine station. He also was interested in using the Marianas as archipelagic stepping stones for a Jesuit re-entry into Japan and eventually used his influence to force the galleon line authorities in New Spain, against their commercial interests and instincts, to support his Mission to the Marianas. Because of the presence of this settlement, the first of its kind in the Pacific, the galleon line’s voluntary reprovisioning stops at Guam were made mandatory port calls to resupply and occasionally reinforce the mission.

The cultural conflict that resulted from the mission’s zealotry, denunciation of tradition customs, and imposition of Spanish Catholicism led to the first anti-colonial movement in the oceanic Pacific, the Chamorro Wars of Liberation, which began in 1669 and continued on and off over three decades. The last band of resistance leaders committed suicide by jumping from sheer cliffs into the Pacific.

Though the armed struggle for liberation failed, Chamorro resistance continued in other forms during the third phase of cultural interaction. These included cultural masking, adaptation, inter-marriage and co-option of Spanish governing institutions. The survival of the native language and core cultural structures, many now fused with Spanish Catholic traditions and rituals, testify to the strength, adaptability and perseverance of the indigenous Chamorros, connecting through the ages with the culture and spirit of their ancestors. 

The Forgotten Discoverer: Staniukovitch’s Lost Legacy in the Hawaiian Islands
John Meissner

On 8 March 1828 at 10:00 a.m., Captain Mikhail Staniukovitch and crew of the Russian sloop Moller approached a "small island, not to be marked on any maps" while traveling along the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) chain. Staniukovitch called the island "Moller" after his ship, which had been named in honor of the Russian naval minister Admiral A. von Moller. From the island's location and description as recorded in the ship's log, as well as a map published the following year, Staniukovitch had indisputably discovered the island now referred to as Laysan.How Staniukovitch lost out to the "armchair" voyager J.N. Reynolds in naming his discovery, indeed, how a remarkable yet woefully unattributed compilation of Pacific Ocean reefs, islands, and shoals submittted to the U.S. Navy by Reynolds in September 1828 managed (and still manages) to relegate Staniukovitch's work in the NWHI to an afterthought, is due to a combination of bad luck, indifference, poor timing, a rotten publicist, the Russian language barrier, a critical lack of early support from Staniukovitch's own countrymen, and perhaps an element of American jingoism/xenophobia. Ongoing translation of previously underaccessible primary source material from the Russian State Naval Archives in St. Petersburg allows Western researchers the first real look at Moller Island, Staniukovitch's forgotten legacy. More broadly, his slighting serves as an object lesson in how legitimate discoverers can lose the battle over disputed discoveries. 

Continuing Hawai`i’s Russian Adventure: The Search for "Knudsen’s Cannons"
Jim Gunderson, Peter Mills, John Coney and Chris Kelley, University of Hawai`i at Hilo

Pa `ula`ula, or Fort Elisabeth, was constructed in 1816 on Kaua`i on the east bank of the Waimea River overlooking Waimea Bay on former kapu land, as a result of an alliance between High Chief Kaumuali`i and the Russian-American Company.Following the decommission of the fort, in 1864, while Valdemar Knudsen was loading armaments and munitions for sale as scrap metal on to a schooner in the Bay, two cannon of unknown materials, or, according to a later account, a single large brass cannon, fell into the murky waters of Waimea Bay.In September, 2004, a team attempted to locate the cannon with remote sensing techniques in an effort to eventually recover and preserve a piece of Hawaiian history for the Island of Kaua`i.This presentation offers a brief history of the fort, its significance to the island of Kaua`i, the importance of the cannon, and the efforts to locate it. 

Peering Into the Liminal Zone: Big Business, Public Perception, and the Treasure Hunting Mystique
Jeff Adams, PhD Candidate, Department of Anthropology/Archaeology, University of Minnesota

While underwater archaeologists have long struggled to achieve professional recognition of their discipline as an overlooked facet of anthropological archaeology, a corresponding disjunction persists between public attitudes toward terrestrial, versus submerged, cultural resources. Due to a host of reasons, most of which originate in the relative inaccessibility of the subaquatic environment, the protective regime for terrestrial heritage has, in much of the world, reached a level of maturity far beyond that for underwater resources. While progress is being made toward globally unifying the management of heritage resources of all types, most notably through UNESCO conventions, factional disagreement, misinformation and indifference continue to impede the formation of a popular consensus on the proper disposition of submerged heritage.
Using formal shipwreck exploration concessions as a point of departure, this paper explores the reasons for the ethical blind spot within which treasure hunting is situated in the public eye. Case studies of shipwreck salvors and concession-granting sovereign nations allow us to differentiate between their stated and implicit motivations, and to re-cast their relationship in terms of coercion, opportunism and risk reduction. We also see that the increasing sophistication of treasure-hunting enterprises reflects their assimilation into the larger financial architecture of investment banking and portfolio management, via the antiquities market, and their symbiotic relationship with mass media, who legitimize their activities. For reasons both real and perceived, the distinction between professional archaeology, treasure-hunting, and deep-sea exploration is becoming increasingly blurred, a threatening situation for archaeologists and the submerged heritage.
Obscured from vision, suspended in time, and enshrouded in mystery, submerged cultural vestiges are falling victim to the same indeterminacy which forms their allure and has heretofore guaranteed their inviolacy. Without publicly-acknowledged, quantifiable evidence of their destruction, both shipwrecks and the archaeological profession itself are destined for eventual fragmentation and dissolution.

The HAER Maritime Program: Saving the Lines Through Documentation
Todd Croteau, Maritime Program Coordinator, Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), U.S. National Park Service

Based on the Historic American Merchant Marine Survey of the 1930s, the HAER Maritime Program is committed to developing a national archive of the vessels, structures and sites that contributed to America’s maritime history. HAER seeks out and develops new technologies to assist in producing measured and interpretive drawings, large-format photographs, and written reports and maintains the Guidelines for Recording Historic Ships to assist others in the production of such documentation. This presentation will provide a background on the HAER program and present recent projects that utilize laser scanning technologies to develop highly accurate computer models of maritime resources including USS Monitor’s turret and engine, a civil war-era submarine discovered in Panama, and Bodie Island Lighthouse on Cape Hatteras.

Initiation of Formalized Submerged Cultural Resource Monitoring for Channel Islands National Park
Patrick Smith, Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (CMAR)

California's Channel Islands have been the scene of numerous maritime incidents over the centuries. Whether native American tomol, Spanish nao, Manila galleon, sealer, smuggler, merchantman, warship, commercial or sport fisherman, over the years thousands of vessels have traversed the waters around these unique isles. Not all of them made it home.
Since 1981 when the location of the Gold Rush steamer Winfield Scott was verified, the National Park Service has carried out efforts to document, locate, survey, monitor and protect all the submerged historical resources in and around the islands. Further within the park's mandate is the ongoing effort to provide to visitors, the history of the vessels, and explain their context within the maritime history of the area, the state, and in some cases, the world.
This presentation will present an overview of some of the projects carried out over the last decade by the avocational group Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (CMAR ) with Channel Islands National Park personnel, and discuss efforts currently in work. From dry dusty archives to the submerged sites themselves, the presentation will show the diverse effort that goes into investigating and documenting the unique submerged cultural resources that are an important part of CINP.
The second part of the presentation will look at the initial work done on the establishment of permanent datums on several of the more sensitive sites within the park, and the development of a formalized monitoring plan to oversee submerged cultural resources within the waters of Channel Islands National Park.

A Photo Mosaic Methodology for Shallow Water Environments
Jesse Stephen and Suzanne S. Finney, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa

Photo mosaics of underwater sites are useful tools for interpreting sites and increasing the level of detail for areas too large for conventional photography.  While this tool has been used for years at deep-water sites using camera platforms such traditional devices are difficult to use in areas that are too shallow or too rough to maintain a consistent distance to the site.  In addition, some sites, notably large shipwrecks cannot be photographed at a well-maintained distance given the time constraints of many projects.  Finding alternative methods to collect data and create photo mosaics is necessary.

NOAA Maritime Heritage Program Regional Updates
Hans Van Tilburg, Maritime Heritage Manager, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve, NOAA

The low coral atolls and islands of the Northwestern Hawaiian archipelago represent a serious hazard to ocean navigation. Like a sieve, they have strained the flotsam and jetsam from the Pacific region for hundreds of years. Japanese junks, bamboo rafts, New England tall ships, paddle wheel steamers, 19th century whalers, French frigates, a plethora of Hawaiian fishing vessels, multinational schooners, barks, brigs, and sampans, and World War II navy salvage ships and aircraft make up a portion of the known vessel losses. This presentation features the on-going work being conducted to discover, investigate, and preserve historically significant sites in the NWHI as part of NOAA’s Maritime Heritage Program.

Maritime Resource Site Formation Processes on Remote Coral Reef Atoll Sites in the Pacific
Kelly Gleason, Pacific Regional Office, National Marine Sanctuaries Program, NOAA

Some of the world’s most unspoiled and productive natural reef systems in the North Pacific Ocean exist in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. These islands also possess a rich maritime history and abundant maritime heritage resources. Recent scientific expeditions to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2002, 2003 and 2004 emphasize the significance of sites there, as well as provide new insight into the challenges of conducting field work at sites located on these remote atolls. Maritime resource site formation process for coral atoll reef environments is not a subject that has been well documented. With return trips for additional field work in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands planned for the spring of 2005 and beyond, understanding site formation processes of shipwrecks on coral atolls is of great importance in the establishment of field survey protocol for operations in these unique wreck site environments. In order to successfully conduct future operations, it will be important to understand how coral reef atoll environments and their ecosystems influence the formation of shipwreck sites as well as the most efficient and effective ways to survey and document these sites at the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Atolls with the limited time allowed by research vessel cruise schedules, challenging weather conditions and the high costs associated with an expedition to the NWHI.

Kaho`olawe’s Maritime Cultural Resources
Rick Rogers, Pilialoha Consultants

The island formerly known as the "Target Island" has been somewhat cleared of unexploded ordnance and is becoming more accessible to segments of the general public. Her modern maritime landscape includes a number of beach landing sites as well as an interesting assortment of shipwrecks, very few of which have been located. They include fishing vessels, sampans, ships, boats, an Inter-Island steam ship, a four-masted clipper ship, locally owned and operated schooners and an early fur trading vessel. This talk will be an introduction to a proposal to be presented to the Kaho`olawe Island Reserve Commission to conduct a five-phase survey of the northern and western coastlines of the island. It will also be the first phase of building a team of volunteers to carry out the survey over the next few years. 

In the Footsteps of Darwin- New Zealand
Barbara Keating (Presented by Philomene Verlaan), Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa

Charles Darwin departed Plymouth England on 27 December 1831.By the time the vessel Beagle reached Valparaiso (in September 1834) the expedition was threatened. The ship’s captain received a letter of reprimand from the Admiralty for employing additional ships in the surveys. Captain FitzRoy fell morbidly depressed, and resigned his command. His second in command (Wickham) was ordered to return the ship directly to England via Cape Horn. Fortunately, Darwin and Wickham persuaded FitzRoy to stay with the expedition, end the surveying of South America, and continue the voyage across the Pacific Ocean. Darwin then became incapacitated with a bout of intestinal problems that caused him to spend 6 weeks in bed.

The voyage across the Pacific took Darwin to the atolls and islands that would bring him fame and a scientific reputation second to none. Darwin remained sea sick throughout the voyage. And, he became increasingly home sick for England. He wrote that -every league traveled onwards puts us a league closer to home. The expedition reached the Bay of Islands on the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand on 21 December 1835. At the Bay Christian missions sought to improve the atmosphere in the rowdy seaport and countryside. The missionaries took him to Kororarika. On his walks through the country he was pleased to see English farm houses with dressed fields that contrasted with the poor stockades and huts built by the natives. Darwin was not impressed by the native Maori people (still practicing cannibalism at this time). The missionaries asked the crew of the Beagle to contribute to their building fund and they contributed 15 Pounds. The church built with the funds still stands today, with a note inside about Darwinʻs visit and contribution.

Charles Darwin took two excursions inland. On the first he visited some fascinating outcrops of limestone, now open to the public for exploration. On his second exploration he visited the mission near Moerewe. The mission houses and church still stand, and are a pleasant visit. Along the road to the mission Darwin was able to see the Kauri trees, this tree is one of the largest trees that grow on earth. Groves of the trees are maintained today as parklands. By the 30th of December Darwin bade farewell to New Zealand and the Beagle continued on to Australia. Captain FitzRoy returned to New Zealand as Governor, but proved to be a poor administrator and was eventually replaced. Governor FitzRoy returned to England, lived a long and successful life but died by his own hand.

Musical Interactions Between Euro-American Whalers and Pacific Islanders at Sea and Ashore in the Nineteenth Century
James Revell Carr, Department of Music, University of California, Santa Barbara

American whaling ships in the 19th century had a rich music culture, fed by the many ethnic groups that participated in that industry. At the same time, every island in the Pacific had its own music and dance traditions, reflecting their intimate relationship with the sea. Throughout the 19th century sailors and Pacific Islanders interacted in complex ways that were frequently in opposition to the social rules of the mainland. Ethnomusicologists of Pacific cultures have documented songs, chants, and dances that reference life aboard American sailing ships, yet most dissmiss the musical influence of sailors as insignificant. Likewise, in the literature on 19th century sea music, the presence of Kanakas (as whalers called Pacific Islanders) aboard ship, and their influence on sailors’ music, is alluded to, but the focus of attention is usually on Afro-Carribean influences. While I agree with historians and ethnomusicologists that Christian missionaries were an extremely important influence on music throughout Oceania, I hope that the examination of maritime musical interactions will help to counter the popular misconception that the acculturation techniques of Euro-American missionaries were the sole catalyst for musical change amongst Pacific Islanders. This paper will discuss music making activities between whalers and Pacific Islanders in several contexts: aboard ships with Kanaka crewmen, where the music culture was inherently transnational; in Oceania, where sailors introduced popular European and American musical styles to the islanders; and on the North American mainland, where the public became fascinated by Pacific Island dance and music far earlier than is commonly thought.

MAST 2004: Shipwreck Beach, Lana`i
Suzanne S. Finney, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa

The 2004 Maritime Archaeology Survey Techniques course (MAST) took place on the Island of Lana`i. Six students participated in the course that included instruction, survey work and the development of a final report. The focus of this field school was an extensive survey of the beach using high precision portable GPS units. Students mapped nearly 4 miles of coastline and over 170 features and sites. This presentation discusses the methodology and results from that survey.

Temporal Changes in Fishing Strategies at Nu`alolo Kai, Na Pali Coast, Kaua`i, Hawai`i
Owen O’Leary, Graduate Student, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa

Nu`alolo Kai, a verdant valley on Kaua`i’s Na Pali coast, is fronted by a large and productive reef and for 700 years prehistoric Hawaiians relied upon it for food. Despite intensive archaeological investigation of the site this paper is one of the first attempts to undertake a detailed analysis of subsistence patterns. This paper builds upon the earlier work by Gordon (1993) through the utilization of rank orders of abundance and increasing frequency of fishhooks to demonstrate that the prehistoric inhabitants of Nu`alolo Kai focused on inshore reef fishes and later shifted their fishing tactics and strategies within this zone to increasingly focus on angling techniques to catch fishes that were living at the edges of the reef. The archaeological materials are discussed within the contextual framework of modern reef biodiversity and productivity studies (Bartram and Clark 1988; State of Hawaii 1979; State of Hawaii 1984; B. P. Bishop Museum 1965). Comparisons are drawn between the Nu`alolo Kai assemblages and other excavated remains from the Hawaiian archipelago and the greater Pacific. Finally, the usefulness of archaeological data for fisheries management is emphasized.

The Sailing Oil Tanker FALLS OF CLYDE: A study of evolving technologies and trades across the Pacific
Todd Croteau, Maritime Program Coordinator, Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), U.S. National Park Service

Launched in 1878 at Port Glasgow, Scotland the four-masted square-rigged ship served the bulk cargo trade throughout the world, and was eventually transferred to Hawai`i’s Matson Line of cargo ships for the transpacific sugar trade. Refitted in 1907 to carry bulk oil between San Francisco and Hawai`i, Falls of Clyde is the only surviving sailing oil tanker in the world. HAER researched the vessel ’s technological history and prepared detailed drawings of the pumping system to aid in future restoration efforts and provide interpretive media for visitors. This presentation will discuss the changing technology of the vessel and show the drawings developed for the documentation project.

Hawaiian Sugar, West Coast Lumber, and the Dawn of the Steam Schooner
Donald J. Froning, Jr., Graduate Student, Maritime Studies Program, East Carolina University

A steam schooner, as the name implies, is a schooner-rigged vessel that is also powered by a steam engine. More specifically, it is the name given to such craft that were built on the American West Coast beginning in the 1880s, primarily for the coastal lumber trade. A "true" steam schooner, say some purists, was built from the keel-up to be powered by steam; this distinction separates these craft from sailing schooners that were later outfitted with a steam engine. Some scholars claim that the steam schooner was a West Coast creation, and lack of evidence to the contrary suggests to the author that this may indeed be the case. These rugged craft were well-suited for the rough waters and "dog holes" of West Coast timber lands, and similar West Coast vessels proved themselves in the rough conditions of the Hawaiian Sugar trade.

NOAA Heritage Updates from O`ahu`s Naval Defense Sea Area
Hans Van Tilburg, Maritime Heritage Manager, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve, NOAA

Pearl Harbor remains the single most important location for the US Navy in the Pacific, and will always be associated with the events of World War II. Millions of travelers visit the USS Arizona memorial and other sites, and this has defined the majority of maritime heritage activities in Hawai`i. But the extent of war related wreck sites remains unknown. Beyond the entrance to Pearl Harbor lies the unseen material legacy of the 20th century, numerous naval aircraft, ships, and submarines resting in the darkness of the seafloor. The recent discovery of a Japanese mini-sub, one of five involved in the December 7th 1941 attack, highlights the potential for discovery and exploration in the Defense Sea Area. This presentation features the in situ research being conducted on the Japanese mini-sub, as well as the investigation of numerous other targets in the area.

Survivors of the River Kwai
Aldona Sendzikas, Assistant Professor, History Department, University of Western Ontario

The main role of the U.S. submarine force in WWII was to intercept and sink enemy shipping. This was the task that the fleet submarine USS Pampanito was carrying out in the South China Sea during her third war patrol in September 1944. However, an unusual set of circumstances would turn this patrol into a very different sort of operation, one that VADM Charles A. Lockwood (COMSUBPAC) would later refer to as a mission "unique in submarine history."

Pampanito took part in a successful attack on a convoy of Japanese vessels carrying loads of war production materials, unaware that the convoy had also been transporting a cargo of more than 2,000 British and Australian P.O.W.s: survivors of the infamous Burma-Thai Railroad. Three days after the attack Pampanito’s bridge lookout spotted survivors clinging to floating debris. The submariners launched into action: volunteer parties of swimmers struggled to pull men out of the water and aboard the sub. By the time the rescue operation had to be aborted due to darkness and inclement weather, Pampanito’s crew of 90 had been swollen by the addition of 73 passengers, all requiring immediate and drastic medical attention. This was administered to the best of the crew’s ability during the next five days, as the sub-turned-hospital-ship ferried these men to Saipan and safety.

The story of the POWs forced to work on the Burma-Thai Railroad was dramatized in the 1957 award-winning film, Bridge on the River Kwai. While fictionalizing many details, the film vividly brought to light the horrors endured by wartime prisoners of the Japanese. At the request of the sub’s crewmen, many of the ex-POWs took pen to paper while on board and wrote vivid accounts of their POW experience. This paper will discuss this historic rescue, as described by the POWs themselves in these unpublished firsthand accounts, and supplemented by other sources, including oral history interviews with the rescuers. The presentation will include a short clip of actual film footage of the rescue operation, taken by one of the crew members with the boat’s 16mm film camera.

The Whaling of the South-West Pacific: An Archaeological Perspective
Mark Staniforth, Associate Professor, Flinders University, South Australia 

Whaling was closely associated with the development of settler societies in the South-West Pacific and was frequently the first maritime industry conducted along the coastlines of what would later become Australia and New Zealand. This paper provides a broadly comparative and thematic approach to the archaeological examination of the extent and nature of the whaling industry in the Australia and New Zealand region. It reviews some of the archaeological research done on pelagic, bay and shore-based whaling over the past two decades. It adopts the life history (or biographical) approach to portable material culture drawn from Kopytoff (1986) to explore the ways in which meanings attached to objects changed between cultural groups as well as over time. In many of these coastal regions shore-based whaling stations were the first sustained sites of interaction between Indigenous peoples and Europeans. I suggest that the nature of the whale fishery - a seasonal, hunting enterprise - and the uses that the two groups had for the whale resulted in some examples of collaborative interactions rather than the more common conflict. Furthermore I argue that there is considerable potential for archaeological research into certain aspects of the technology of whaling and into the life style and living conditions experienced by ship-based and shore-based whalers.

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15th Annual Symposium, February 14-16,2004
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Sherwood Maynard, Marine Option Program, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa
   Michael W. Graves, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa

Suzanne S. Finney, MAHHI Foundation

Typhoons Cobra & Viper: Weather and Pacific Naval Operations, 1944-45

William S. Dudley, Director, Naval Historical Center


Today, the huge U.S. fleets that operated in the Pacific during the last year of World War II seem nearly unstoppable. Yet, there were dire moments when military operations halted and entire task groups were imperiled due to the lack of adequate meteorological information. Major miscalculations led to ships sinking, widespread damage of both ships and aircraft, and the loss of naval personnel. During operations to drive the Japanese from the Philippines in 1944, the twin thrusts of operations coming from the Central and Southwest Pacific joined at Leyte Gulf. This resulted in a huge battle with Japanese air and naval forces. The American 3rd fleet (Task Force 38), under the command of Admiral William "Bull" Halsey, succeeded in defeating several enemy surface task groups that threatened U.S. invasion forces in late October.  The enemy’s kamikaze attacks had commenced during U.S. air attacks on Japanese-held Manila. This caused a delay in landing operations on Mindoro and Luzon. It was at this time that Typhoon Cobra struck, on 18 December. The cost: 3 destroyers sunk, seven ships badly damaged, 186 planes destroyed, and over 800 lives lost.  In June 1945, Task Force 38, again under Halsey’s flag, was en route through the Philippine Sea heading for operations off Okinawa when it encountered Typhoon Viper, a tropical storm that became a two-headed typhoon. This typhoon damaged some of the larger vessels of the task force, but it was less deadly than Cobra.   This paper will explore the storms’ affect on naval operations and the lessons the Navy learned or relearned from these costly encounters. It is worthwhile to ponder these events in our present age when a surfeit of accurate satellite weather information is available to those who plan and direct military and naval operations.

Survivor Maloelap: Outfit, Outfast, Outlay 

Suzanne Finney, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa 

Maloelap Atoll is the 3rd largest atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the site of one of five airbases the Japanese maintained in the Marshalls during World War II.  The U.S. effectively cut off the atoll from supply lines in 1944 until the end of the war, leaving the Japanese stationed there, and the Marshallese who lived there, to fend for themselves.  Losses at this atoll were particularly high as starvation and stress took their toll.  There is still quite a bit of material from the war remaining in the lagoon and around the small islands.  In July 2003 we conducted an underwater survey of the lagoon at Maloelap Atoll, concentrating on several known wreck sites near the main island of Taroa.  This presentation offers a brief history of the area during World War II and outlines some of the findings of the 2003 survey based on visual inspection and magnetometer data.  

Lost and Found: USS Saginaw at Kure Atoll
Hans K. Van Tilburg, Maritime Heritage Manager, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve, NOAA

For 133 years the wreckage of the American warship USS Saginaw has lain unseen beneath the reefs of Kure Atoll. The side-wheel steam ship was lost October 30th 1870, and the survival and rescue of her crew from this remote location mark a heroic event in Pacific maritime history.  Recently discovered by team members of NOAA's Maritime Heritage Program, further details from the wreck site are now coming to light. These resources are windows into our maritime past, rare views of Pacific expansion, exploration, and survival. This presentation covers the history of the USS Saginaw herself, the wrecking event, the open boat voyage back to the Main Hawaiian Islands, and the continuing survey work on the shipwreck site at remote and beautiful Kure Atoll.

Pohnpei Redux
Suzanne S. Finney, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa 

Season three investigating the remains of the whaling vessels sunk by the CSS Shenandoah in April 1865 took place in August 2003.  This season focused on the suspected remains of the Harvest, a Hawaiian registered whaleship that rests on a different section of the reef from Sites 1 & 2 identified in the 1999 and 2000 field seasons.  In addition to recording the site, video documentation was collected for a 7th grade curriculum project being constructed by the Hawai`i State Department of Education.  This presentation describes the results of the fieldwork, as well as a brief description of the curriculum project.

The Cold Case File of the Frolic
Sheli O. Smith, Professor, Napa Valley College, Napa, California


In 1850 events swept the Pacific changing forever, the cultures living on its shores.  The story of the clipper brig Frolic represents the struggle of change in cultural paradigms happening in the mid 19th century, the collision of cultures across the Pacific, and our archaeological ability to unravel mysteries 150 years after the wrecking took place.  This paper explores these three aspects of the archaeological investigation of the Frolic.

Investigation of intertidal Wreck Site - Cuyler Harbor, San Miguel Island
Patrick Smith, CMAR

In January of 2004, storm generated high surf and high tides struck the coast of southern California. On San Miguel Island, this onslaught served as the mechanism that removed thousands of cubic yards of sand from the beach at Cuyler Harbor, and in so doing, revealed the wreckage of a previously undocumented wreck. Because of a very limited tidal window, a quick response team of National Park Service personnel and members of Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resource (CMAR), gathered and traveled to the site to gather as much information as possible before the wreckage was inundated. This slide presentation will look at the work accomplished by NPS and the avocational group, CMAR, and present the hypotheses that are being considered with regard to the data gathered on this newly discovered cultural resource within Channel Islands National Park.

A Short History of the Maritime Archaeology and History Program at the University of Hawai`i
Sherwood Maynard, Director, Marine Option Program,
University of Hawai`i at Mānoa

In 1989 the University of Hawaii in collaboration with a number of individuals and agencies began to bring attention to the field of maritime archaeology and history when its Marine Option Program (MOP) inaugurated a series of Symposia on the Maritime Archaeology and History of Hawaii and the Pacific. Over fourteen consecutive years, scholars and practitioners from throughout the U.S. and Pacific region, encompassing topics from Polynesian voyaging to European exploration to whaling to commerce and the military in the Pacific, made some 266 presentations. Field trips took participants to the Arizona, the Bowfin, the Missouri, the Hokulea, fishing sampans, lighthouses, fishponds, the Hawaii Maritime Center and elsewhere   Initially the symposium was accompanied by a short in-water techniques workshop.  This initiative evolved into new courses at the university and eventually into a graduate certificate program which was offered from 1998-2002, graduating seven students, and enrolling about thirty. Program design was closely modeled after that of East Carolina University’s successful Program in Maritime History and Underwater Research. Further collaboration with ECU faculty and staff uncoupled practical training from the symposium and led to offering of a summer field school in Hawaii for the first time in 1993. Six subsequent summer courses have been conducted and form the core of a modest research program which included ancient fishing sites, traditional fishponds and fish traps, submerged military aircraft and ships, interisland steamship landings, whalers in Micronesia, Midway, and an inventory for the Naval Historical Center. In 1999 MOP began to encounter rough political seas on campus, and the weaknesses of an innovative, cross-disciplinary program in the confines of a conservative institution led to retrenching. No support could be found to continue the program; enrollment was low both for the certificate and for the summer field course. A new, bottom-line campus administration terminated the certificate program and its defacto head was hired away by a federal agency. Neither the summer course nor the symposium was offered in 2003. Some interest has recently been rekindled, and another symposium and field school have been slated for 2004.

So Many Shipwrecks, So Much Ocean, Which Ones Should We Look for?
Richard W. Rogers, Pilialoha Corporation

World War Two veteran warships are scattered about, mostly south of Oahu. With the technology to search and dive deeper then stay longer than ever before, what should we be looking for down there, and why? Inter-Island Steamships litter many shores. Which ones have something to teach us?  Which ones still contain unsalvaged cargo? Plantation landings served as the point of interaction between the terrestrial and maritime components of Hawai`i’s agricultural industries. What is left of them? What can we learn from them? How many still hold the shipwrecks lost near their ports of embarkation?  The wooden hulls of various schooners, brigs, barks and ships lie buried in the sands around each of the Hawaiian Islands. Where should we look for the most worthwhile shipwrecks? What would we consider worthwhile? What might be left of an old wooden hull in Hawaiian waters? Are there really any Spanish Galleons around here? If so, where are they and how can we prove it?  How many of these questions can we answer in twenty minutes?

I Ka Moana Lipolipo, Into the Vast Ocean: Native Hawaiian Whalemen in the American Whaling Fleet
Susan A. Lebo, Cultural Studies Division, Bernice P. Bishop Museum

One-fifth of the Hawaiian population of young men between fifteen and thirty years old, or about 3,000, reportedly were wandering on the ocean or in foreign lands in 1846. An overwhelming number of these young men ventured from Hawai`i on whaling ships. They shipped aboard as seamen, boatsteerers (harpooners), and mates, as well as servants, navigators, carpenters, and coopers, among others. Most worked for a "lay" or a portion of the ship’s profit, plying the whaling grounds of the Arctic, the Pacific, and less frequently, the Atlantic.   Who were these young Native Hawaiian men, and what are their stories? More than 150 years after the first of these seamen joined the crews of American whaling ships, few in Hawai`i or on the U.S. mainland know about this part of our history.  My research reveals that Native Hawaiians significantly contributed to the success of nineteenth-century commercial whaling.  These men were frequently and repeatedly recruited by whaling captains who touted them as seaworthy, skilled, and reliable. Most worked seasonally, serving from a few months to more than a year before returning home. Some returned to the same whaling grounds season after season.  These men’s stories, recorded in both English and Hawaiian-language manuscripts, tell of their endeavors and contributions. They detail the challenges, hardships, and adventures of whaling, and most importantly, the names of thousands of Native Hawaiian whalemen and their contributions to our history.

Newspaper Logbooks; The Next Best Thing
Donald. J. Froning Jr., Graduate Student, East Carolina University

When conducting research on the history of a particular vessel, finding and viewing the ship’s logbook would be a dream-come-true.  Some researchers are so lucky, but many are not.  Several newspapers from port cities in the 19th and early 20th centuries had columns called "Shipping Intelligence" or something similar, that contained information as to the comings and goings of various ships, including what they carried, the name of the captain, etc.  Compiling a database of this info for a particular ship is a time-consuming process, but if the information is available, it is absolutely essential that it be done in the absence of a logbook or some other official record of the ship’s history.

Archaeology as Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Possibilities for Sustainable Environmental Policy

Alex Morrison, Graduate Student, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa 

This paper focuses on using archaeology to understand long-term human/environmental relationships and the ramifications for creating sustainable environmental policies in developing Pacific Island nations.  Specifically, the management of inshore marine environments will be discussed in relationship to both contemporary and archaeological ecological knowledge.  The Samoan and Hawaiian Islands will be discussed as case studies.  Additional focus will concentrate on understanding marine biology, human foraging patterns, and contemporary economic policy.


How to Incorporate Near Shore Sites associated with Coastal Settlement into Terrestrial Contract Archaeological Surveys

Bradford Ostroff, GANDA Inc. - Natural and Cultural Resource Management

This paper will explore how to incorporate archaeological sites that exist in shallow water, near the shoreline, into contract archaeology in Hawaii. The current system in Hawaii stops the archaeological inventory survey at the vegetation line on the beach. This practice ignores many features that were constructed just offshore, sites that are in tidal zones and those sites that were once terrestrial and are now inundated.  In Hawai`i there are three basic types that fit into this category, traditional Hawaiian, historic and military. Examples of the traditional Hawaiian sites are fishponds, fish traps, fishboxes, octopus mounds and offshore heiau. Historic examples are piers, landings, cattle-movers and other harbor features. Military features such as "dragon’s teeth" (anti-amphib. landing barriers) and water-plane moorings also exist in shallow water.  My big concern is that Hawai`i, a state surrounded by water, has no maritime division or archaeological policies at DLNR-SHPD to control and incorporate such sites into the archaeological record. I feel that this could be a way to lead these terrestrial based archaeologists out into the shallow water which would in turn lead the department towards accepting deep water archaeology. This paper will suggest to DLNR that coastal surveys, especially those done on State and Federal Lands, explore the shallows directly offshore from their project area for such sites. Shallow water sites can be found with low-budget techniques such as walking, snorkeling or floating over the area. Ignoring such sites is basically ignoring a major aspect of coastal living and is therefore doing a substandard archaeological survey.


The Seamless Join? Integrating submerged and terrestrial maritime cultural landscapes: case studies from Norway with potential applications in Oceania

Stephen Wickler , Researcher / Maritime Archaeologist, Dept. of Archaeology, Tromso University Museum, Tromso, Norway


There is a growing recognition that both submerged and terrestrial cultural resources are equally important components of a holistic approach to understanding transformations of maritime cultural landscapes over time. This approach has been touted as the so-called "seamless join" and advocated by an increasing number of maritime archaeologists, although actual field investigations often fail to live up to the ideal. In this paper, I present some examples from my field research as a maritime archaeologist in northern Norway where an attempt has been made to bridge the gap and provide an integrated landscape approach. I will briefly discuss the results of investigations focused on Viking Age and medieval harbors where traditional diver based survey and excavation has been augmented by and integrated with waterborne and terrestrial geophysical surveys. To conclude, the potential for using a similar approach for the documentation of maritime landscapes in Hawai`i and elsewhere in the Pacific is touched upon and will hopefully serve as a catalyst for further discussion.


New Approaches to Experimental Voyaging in the Pacific: Canoe building, Sailing and Navigation Revival Projects

Joe Genz, Graduate Student, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa


Maritime investigations of Pacific archaeology typically involve ethnographic research among practicing Micronesian navigators and experimental voyaging on replicas of traditional Polynesian sailing canoes.  Such studies have provided information and insights on the performance of sailing canoes and traditional ways of navigating needed to understand the colonization of the Pacific and maintenance of inter-island communication.  In this paper, I introduce contemporary canoe building, sailing and navigation revival projects as a new approach to experimental voyaging.  In a few areas of the Pacific, elders who had formerly built, sailed and navigated voyaging canoes have recently started working with youths to reconstruct and sail them in order to preserve such seafaring knowledge and skills.  In particular, I discuss the potential of the Marshall Island revival project Waan Ael in Majel (Canoes of the Marshall Islands) to offer insights for unresolved aspects of Micronesian prehistory and traditional navigation.


Historic Sailing Ships and their Return to Hawai`i
Melbourne Smith, President, International Historical Watercraft Society

When the replica of Captain Cook’s ship Endeavour visited Hawai`i in 1999, it caused Hawaiian maritime historians and educators to search for a way to have their own replica ship for sail training, education, and eco-tourism.  The historic topsail schooner Lynx arrived from California in 2002 with a similar mission.  Returning to Hawai`i in 2003, her owner proposed a pilot program for Kamehameha School students to participate in a sailing training and history exploration programs in the islands.  The idea met with success and Lynx will return again in 2004 with an expanded educational sailing curriculum.  In response, the Fair American Educational Foundation (FAEF) organized in Hawai`i to build and operate an example of the schooner Fair American on a full time basis. The original Fair American was a fur-trading schooner seized in 1790 by King Kamehameha and used in battle as his flagship to unifying the Sandwich Islands.  This bold step by FAEF will serve the community with its own sail training and educational programs with an added ability to sail as a good will ambassador to the mainland and foreign Pacific Rim ports.  There are plans for other replica sailing ships to follow including the whaling ship John Howland.  In 1842 she rescued five Japanese castaways and brought them to Hawai`i.  They were the first Japanese to land in the islands.  The most famous of the survivors was Manjiro who was taken and educated by the captain.  Later Manjiro returned to Hawai`i and then to Japan where he became one of the most revered educators in Japanese history and a symbol still to this day of the great cross cultural ties with America.  Her mission will introduce whale research and eco-tourism in an authentic whaling ship.  A third vessel will be explored.  The three-masted schooner Lurline was one of the first trading vessels of the Matson Line to establish scheduled trading passages in 1887 between Hilo and San Francisco.  A San Francisco based organization is planning to revive a sail training program on the same ocean route to the Islands.  While the historic significance of each vessel to be replicated will be discussed, the basic intention of the paper is to illustrate the architectural design of each ship with a graphic presentation of the hull design lines, sail plans, and historic characteristics.


Hawai`i’s Mystery Islands: Nihoa (Bird Island) and Mokumanamana (Necker Island)

Ben R. Finney, Professor Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa


Archaeologists working in Polynesia write about the region's "mystery islands," so-called because although deserted when reached by early European explorers these generally small, dry or otherwise marginal islands contain ancient stone structures and tools indicating an earlier Polynesian presence.  Contrary to dramatic theories about lost colonies, doomed castaways and the like, recent research on such mystery islands in the South Pacific suggests that skilled voyagers sailed to them to exploit their resources, and after some time moved on to new islands or withdrew to their home islands.  Archaeological remains on Nihoa and Mokumanamana, the first two islands of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, indicate that Hawaiians once occupied these tiny, rocky islets.  Furthermore, they are imbedded in Hawaiian oral traditions, including the Pele epic and tales of more recent voyages recalled by Ni'ihau elders.  We propose that these two islands, and perhaps also neighboring Mokupapapa (French Frigates Shoal), were once sources for seabird feathers and other goods valued by the people of Ni'ihau and Kaua'i, the closest "main Hawaiian islands."  The location of Mokumanamana nearly on the Tropic of Cancer, as well as its liminal status as the last sizeable bit of rocky land before the atolls begin, may help explain the island's many shrines.


Cleopatra’s Barge- The Royal Yacht

Barbara Keating, Professor, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa


Cleopatra's Barge was the first American sea-going yacht. It was built by Capt. George Crowinshield, Jr. (heir to the fortunes of 2 shipbuilding families) and a privateer in the War of 1812. The ship was commissioned in the spring of 1816, a Retire Becket hermaphrodite brig, 192 41/95 tons, 83x22x11 ft. in dimensions, costing $50,000.  One of George's siblings snidely remarked that his dandy brother would get some foolish name that would be laughed at for the vessel. When word of the remarks reached George he named his new vessel Cleopatra's Barge. The ship was fitted out in furnishings and appointments suited for a king. It set sail in 1816, with horizontal stripes of many colors painted on one side of the ship and a herringbone pattern on the opposite side. (Journals of the Mediterranean voyage indicate the ship was repainted every 40 days). The ship sailed to the Mediterranean, visiting and partying in every major port with the royalty of Europe, who were suitable impressed. On 3 Oct 1817, the ship returned to homeport in Salem. Shortly thereafter, on 26 Nov 1817, George, Jr., at the age of 50 passed away.  After his death, George's siblings sold many of the extravagant furnishings on board for $7-8,000 to members of the Salem community. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the shipbuilding, the Peabody-Essex Museum asked the community to donate items from the ship for display in the Museum; these items became a permanent part of the museum. (The museum kindly allowed photography of the exhibits for this presentation.)  The Hawaiian King Liholiho bought the vessel (Nov 1820) then valued at $12,000 for future deliveries of 80,000 doll or 8,000 pickle of sandalwood. The sandalwood is estimated to have been worth $90,000, more than the original cost of the ship! The ship was renamed Ha`aheo o Hawai`i (Pride of Hawaii) and was driven aground at Hanalei, Kauai (5 April 1824). A witness claimed all aboard except the Captain were intoxicated.  Natives brought ashore spars, rigging and other items. A part of the hull washed ashore in a storm of 30 Dec 1844. The remains of the ship still lie offshore and have been the subject of marine archaeological studies by Captain Richard Rogers and scientists of the Smithsonian Museum.



NOAA's Maritime Heritage Program: the New Kid on the Block

Hans K. Van Tilburg, Maritime Heritage Manager, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve, NOAA

Functioning maritime archaeology programs are few and far between.  Until now, the Submerged Resources Unit, National Park Service has been serving somewhat as the de facto underwater team for the Federal Archaeology Program, but their focus has been mainly National Park lands under the Department of the Interior. There is a new federal program on the block looking towards the preservation and protection of maritime heritage resources within the Department of Commerce's National Marine Sanctuary Program: NOAA's Maritime Heritage Program (MHP). Team members and diverse talents of the MHP stretch between Maine and American Samoa, covering 14 marine sanctuaries and reserves, a total of more than 118 thousand square miles. This presentation covers the establishment of the MHP, its objectives and principles, and its goals for the future.  NOAA's maritime heritage work has already begun in Hawai`i.
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14th Annual Symposium, May 16-18, 2002
ABSTRACTS (in order of presentation) 
This symposium was sponsored jointly with the North American Society of American History (NASOH)

The Mystery of the Brig Owyhee’s Anchor and the Disappearance of Captain John Dominis  
Jim Mockford
Advisory Council, Grays Harbor Historical Seaport

Fifty years after the disappearance of a sea captain on his voyage to China in 1846 the Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani held a seance to see if she could learn what happened to her Father-in-law Captain John Dominis.  She lived in the grand house in Honolulu called Washington Place built by Dominis in the early 1840s. The mansion became the home of his wife Mary and son John Owen Dominis who moved to Hawai`i from New York and lived there while Captain Dominis sailed off on trading ships across the Pacific. Eventually, John Owen married the Hawaiian Princess Lydia who would become Hawai`i’s Queen and call Washington Place her home. Yet even Queen Liliuokalani sought to know more about Captain John Dominis. This paper examines the career of Captain John Dominis utilizing early records that show him in command of the Brig Owyhee on which he entered the Columbia River in 1829 to trade as the first American merchant vessel in the river since 1814. The British Hudson’s Bay Company had established itself at Fort Vancouver in 1824 and took a dim view of the American trader making its way up the Columbia. But Dominis did not stop at Fort Vancouver. He continued up the Willamette River as far as the mouth of the Clackamas River and anchored there, the first sea going vessel to penetrate the river that far. Records vary about the cause of an attack by Clackamas Indians on Dominis and his men but in the melee that followed the Owyhee was cut loose from its anchor by Clackamas swimmers and had to drift downstream to escape. Dominis is credited with bringing the first peach trees to the Oregon country and for being the first to bring Columbia River salmon to Boston. Was the Owyhee’s anchor the only thing the ship left behind in the Oregon country? What happened to the Owhyee’s anchor? In an interesting story about the recovery of this maritime artifact the author describes how the Owyhee’s anchor was found and is now displayed by the Portland Yacht Club. There still remains the mystery of Captain Dominis disappearance at sea in 1846. But new sources and research on the life of Captain John Dominis is beginning to shed light on the story of the mysterious man whom even his own daughter in law, Hawai`i’s Queen sought to learn through unconventional sources over a century ago when no one could answer her questions about Captain John Dominis. Today Washington Place, which has been home to Hawai`i’s governors for over eighty years, is preparing for change. Plans for a new Governor’s residence are underway allowing room for historical exhibits in the house that Captain John Dominis built. It is time we learned more about the man who built it!

Ahab’s Boat: Non-Western Seamen on Euroamerican Ships of Exploration and Commerce.  
David Chappell PhD University of Hawai`i
Department of History

Narratives of European or Euroamerican maritime exploration and commerce since 1500 often neglect to mention the role played by local labor pools and guides in the far-flung regions their vessels visited.  But even in Moby Dick, Herman Melville assigns an Indian, African and Oceanian key roles as boatsteerers (harpooners), and Captain Ahab's own boat is manned by "Manila-men."  This paper will address this neglected issue of emerging co-dependency in overseas shipping, looking in particular at the catch-all category of "Manila-men," South Asian "lascars," Oceanian "kanakas," and west African "Kru-men" from Liberia.  In some ways, "globalization" was already a two-way cross-cultural encounter from Vasco da Gama onwards.

The Culture of Risk: the Effect of Shipwreck on the Society of Colonial Manila  
William McCarthy PhD Professor, Department of History, University of North Carolina-Wilmington

The Manila galleon provided the sole financial support of the Spanish community in the Philippines.  In good times, wealth was prolific, and the lifestyle of Spanish settlers and merchants lavish in the extreme.  The situation was fraught with difficulty, however, as many of the galleons wrecked and the annual profit was lost.  An economy with such a fragile base was difficult to sustain, and presumably wondrous to more cautious modern viewers.  This presentation will cover the nature of the trade, the numbers and circumstances of wrecks, the financial and fiscal vicissitudes resulting therefrom, and describe the nature of an existence in the Philippines that was basically reckless.

The Laysan Island Guano Operation 1890-1910 
John Meissner Department of Biology, University of Nevada

Laysan Island was the only island in the Northwest Hawaiian chain to be worked extensively for guano.  Our knowledge of the guano operation on Laysan is fragmented and largely second-hand.  Primary source material is restricted to published diary excerpts or expedition reports from  occasional scientific interlopers, e.g. Fisher, Munro/Palmer, and Schauinsland. Early photographs of Laysan are often incorrectly identified or attributed.  While the names Rothschild, Schlemmer, and Wilcox as they relate to Laysan's early history are well-known, the equally important contributions of G.D. Freeth and J.J. Williams have been overlooked.  Similarly, the names and nationalities of laborers, foremen, and winter caretakers involved in the Laysan guano mining enterprise have faded into obscurity.  Using systematic and exhaustive re-examination of Honolulu newspapers and passenger lists from this period, a year-by-year census of Laysan visitors and transient occupants is being prepared.

A Load of Guano: Baltimore and the Fertilizer Trade in the Nineteenth Century  
Pete Lesher
Curator, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum
St. Michaels, Maryland

Agricultural needs in the American South drove a worldwide search for fertilizer sources, but when found in the Pacific and the Caribbean, it became the cargo of last resort for captains and ship owners. Baltimore began to regularly import Peruvian guano in the 1840s and alternated with New York as the principal center for the fertilizer trade for the rest of the century. In the 1850s Maryland’s inspection law drove guano shipments away from Baltimore, but its better access to nutrient-depleted southern agricultural land brought some of the trade back.  Baltimore’s phosphate trade to the Pacific waned after the Civil War as the supply on Peru’s Chinchas Islands neared exhaustion and closer sources were discovered on Navassa Island, near Haiti, in 1856.  Nitrates and phosphates were among the worst cargos ever carried on sailing ships. The ammonia given off by guano made the holds unbearable, particularly during loading operations. This unpopular duty precipitated coolie mutinies in the Peruvian trade and strikes and riots among the workers (some of them convict laborers) on Navassa Island. Ships’ logs and litigation provide first hand accounts into the problems of the fertilizer trade.

Seaweed and Tumbleweeds: Making Connections Between the "New Western History" and Eastern Pacific Shores  
Mark Allen Main Editor, Mains’l Haul
Maritime Museum Association of San Diego

Maritime historians and scholars of the American West alike can benefit from considering the margins of the Eastern Pacific in a different light: as zones affected by historical processes that shaped the American West. In this "Maritime West," marginalized ethnic groups have clung to the actual margins of the continent, making toeholds for themselves in unclaimed places, primarily in fisheries. Maritime historians have largely overlooked how the processes which shaped life on the Pacific's fringe (and affected the ethnic makeup of crews drawn from its beaches) are extensions of factors which shaped the Inland West. In recent decades, the "New Western History" has opened up new ways of thinking about the West and its people, prominently in the writings of Patricia Nelson Limerick. But like Western historians before them, they have tended to exclude the coast from consideration as part of "The West," at least after the Gold Rush brought urbanization to parts of coastal California.  This paper is intended to suggest ways in which the two fields of historical inquiry can benefit from each other, by identifying five aspects which this Maritime West shares with attributes of the Inland West as identified by Limerick, illustrating each with anecdotal examples drawn from California's maritime history.

The 1872 Cruise of the Pearl-Shelling Schooner Franz: Re-ordering the Western Pacific Maritime Trade  
Steve Mullins PhD
Senior Lecturer in History Central Queensland University

On 2 July 1872 the 148 ton schooner Franz left Sydney under the command of the Prussian Edwin Redlich on a pearl-shelling cruise to the South Seas and Malay Archipelago.  Seventeen hands were aboard all told: the European master, mate and second mate, a Rotuman leading hand, a Chinese cook, and twelve Malay, Fijian and Loyalty Islander crew.  Redlich sailed directly to the Loyalty Islands to sign on more men, and then made his way north until he had engaged a full complement of 34.  He then proceeded along the north coast of New Guinea prospecting for pearl shell, reaching Sorong in the Sele Strait at the island's western tip on 12 November 1872.  From Sorong Redlich sent eighteen men in two boats to search for shell.  They were never seen again.  This paper uses the cruise of the Franz to illustrate a number of points about the emergence of the late 19th century pearl-shelling industry.  In 1872 its methods, labour and financial arrangements were still similar to those of the earlier whaling, sandalwood and bêche-de-mer industries, but onboard relationships were being re-ordered as the cultural complex of the western Pacific maritime trade shifted east.  Pearl-shelling masters also had to contend with new systems of authority, and the failure to cope could prove disastrous, as the massacre of the Franz’s divers shows.  

Navy Surgeon in Hawai`i  
Harry Langley PhD
Curator of Naval History (ret.) Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.

This presentation deals with the naval and medical career of Charles F.B. Guillou (1813-1899). While a surgeon in the navy Guillou participated in the Wilkes Exploring Expedition (where he had his first contact with Hawaii), and later served under Commodore Biddle when he made his unsuccessful attempt to open Japan to American commerce. He also served in the Mediterranean Squadron. After resigning from the navy, he moved to Honolulu where he was placed in charge of a hospital and later became the court physician of the Hawaiian royal family.

The Cruise of the Narragansett: American Expansion, Exploration and Economics in the Pacific, 1871-1873  
Kenneth J. Blume PhD
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Albany College of Pharmacy

This paper examines the Pacific cruise (1871-1873) of the U.S.S. Narragansett under Commander Richard W. Meade, as a lens through which to see several themes in late-nineteenth century American naval and diplomatic history.  Three episodes of the cruise illustrate these themes.  Meade’s role in forging the first U.S. treaty with Samoa is a textbook case of the converging activities and interests of the businessman, the politician, the naval officer, the missionary, and the diplomat. The ship’s long stretches between ports provided an incubator for a "naval psyche" and "naval imperative" that shaped the responses of naval officers.  Finally, the encounters between the Narragansett and South Pacific labor traders bring an American world--or at least Pacific--view into focus. These episodes exemplify several themes:  the dynamics of United States contacts in the Pacific; the influences--geographic, strategic, technological, economic, racial, and idiosyncratic--that that shaped U.S. Pacific diplomacy and foreign policy; the role of the U.S. naval diplomacy and naval exploration; and the state of the U.S. Navy before the American Naval Renaissance.  In all, this paper--based on Meade’s private and official correspondence, highlights the rich complexity of the American response to the Pacific world after the Civil War and before the Spanish-American War.

"Refuse of Human Species":  Thomas ap Catesby Jones, and the Anglo-American Struggle for Hawai`i. 
Gene A. Smith PhD Professor, History Department Texas Christian University

Master Commandant Thomas ap Catesby Jones arrived in Hawai`i in October 1826 with instructions to survey and to secure information about the South Pacific islands, to negotiate with local chieftains and kings, and to protect growing American commercial interests in the region from mutinous sailors and British incursions.  Yet upon his arrival he found a significant British influence in the form of British Consul General Richard Charlton, as well as a great influx of English renegadoes from New South Wales, who were gaining control over the entire Pacific.  Unless this "refuse of human species" was stopped, Jones reported that they would ultimately assume economic control over the Pacific.  During the next three months Jones confronted Charlton and the network of British merchants who controlled the islands’ commerce, and worked to show the Stars and Stripes in the region; in doing so, he momentarily broke British hegemony over the region.  True, the United States did not replace Great Britain as the major economic power in the Pacific, nor did the government immediately exploit Jones’s opening.  Nonetheless, the United States did gain a foothold in the region that it would not relinquish.  In the end, "the kind eyed chief," as the Hawaiians referred to Jones, had laid important foundations for future U.S. involvement in the Pacific.

Opening a Civil War time capsule; the recovery and excavation of the Civil War Confederate Submarine H.L. Hunley, discovered off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina
Robert Neyland PhD
Director, Hunley Recovery Project; Branch Head, Underwater Archaeology, Naval Historical Center

In 1995, author Clive Cussler discovered the Civil War Confederate Submarine H.L. Hunley off the coast of South Carolina.  The submarine disappeared following her successful attack on the U.S.S. Housatonic.  With ownership of the submarine defaulting to the US Navy, Dr. Robert Neyland has participated in every aspect of the H.L. Hunley’s offshore recovery and interior excavation.  This presentation details the events that led to the development of the H.L. Hunley, how it became the first submarine to sink an enemy vessel, its discovery and unbelievable recovery, and the opening of the submarine and removal of the eight-man crew. 

Attempts to Supply the Philippines, 1942  
Charles Dana Gibson
Historian and Author, Camden, Maine

This presentation, which is derived from my forthcoming book, Over Seas: U.S. Army Maritime Operations, 1898 Through the Fall of the Philippines, will cover the well funded attempts to supply MacArthur’s beleaguered army on Bataan and Corregidor during January and February of 1942.  Initially, the plan was to send supply ships from Australia’s east coast to Mindanao and cebu from where their cargoes would be transshipped onto interisland freighters for the final run to Corregidor.  Three ships departed Australia and arrived at their destinations; however, very little of their cargoes ever reached Corregidor.   Another supply effort was planned and executed from Corregidor.  From there Filipino coasters made a total of six successful supply runs south to Batangas Province as well as Panay before the enemy made such efforts prohibitive.  For various reasons which my presentation will explore, the Army also planned to utilize Java as a staging area for blockade running to the Philippines.  A mission to Java was organized in January 1942; however, despite heroic efforts, it failed with the loss of the selected ships.  The failure of the Java mission was in part because of the tightness of the Japanese blockade and in part because of a lack of cooperation on the part f the allied joint command (ABDA) the on Java. The presentation will touch on all these operations and will analyze the overall supply program and the reasons for the applicable successes and failures.

U.S. Coast Guard: Operation Noble Eagle Documentation Project   
P.J. Capelotti PhD
Professor, Anthropology and American Studies Department, Pennsylvania Statue University Abington College

The terrorist attacks on the United States and the subsequent response of the U.S. Coast Guard are seminal events in the history of the nation and the service.  The Assistant Commandant for Government and Public Affairs (G-I), at U.S.  Coast Guard Headquarters in Washington, D.C., has initiated a project to preserve vital historical data that documents Coast Guard operations since 9/11.  The project is directed by the Coast Guard Historians Office (G-IPA-4), and will involve the creation of a manuscript and web-based operational archive that will serve as a permanent repository of the actions of the Coast Guard during Operation Noble Eagle.  As the first operations documentation project by the Coast Guard since the Second World War, this project presents several unique challenges, as well as revealing opportunities for strengthening the documentation of the service as a whole.

The History of the Evolution of Weather Aviation: the Wright Brothers to the USS Arizona  
Douglas Stover h
istorian, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, National Park Service

A Hidden Treasure in maritime history is the US Weather Bureau (USWB). The first US Weather Bureau Station managed by the Army Signal Service’s.  On July 1, 1891 the US Weather Bureau was established in the Department of Agriculture by the transfer from the Army Signal Corps, meteorological service. In 1901, U.S. Weather Station is constructed from North Carolina to the Pacific Islands. The Wright Brothers historic flights of December 1903 to the USS Arizona, played a major role in weather service. The station manned by an observer and a maintenance man was equipped with telegraph communication to the District Forecast Center in Washington, D.C.  Hourly checks were made of the temperature, humidity, wind velocity, solar radiation, barometric pressure and precipitation.  As important part of the national weather network, the station received information from lifesaving stations, issued coastal forecasts and storm warnings.

A Joint Perspective of Pacific Area Military History  
Robert Stubbs
Historian, U.S. Pacific Command, O`ahu, Hawai`i

It is the mission of Department of Defense history programs to collect, preserve, and disseminate the history of our commands.  We are the corporate memory of the commands and, as such, we make significant contributions to training, exercises, and operations.  I will discuss the establishment of the Pacific Command and the organization of the Pacific Command history program, it's evolution, and our relationship with the various military service history programs.  Our sources, resources, and products will be described.  I will also advocate the importance of naval history within the military. 

Beyond Pearl Harbor: Navy Ships and Aircraft in Hawaiian Waters  
Hans Van Tilburg PhD
Lecturer, Maritime Program, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa

 The US Navy has a long and significant history here in the islands, and much of that past is reflected in the material remains of sunken aircraft, submarines and ships.  Thanks to a recent grant from the Naval Historical Center in Washington D.C., an inventory of submerged navy property has finally begun.  This initial effort focuses on tapping local contacts and scattered documents and archival collections to create the first-ever comprehensive report on known navy wrecks in Hawaiian waters.  The report will make management recommendations and serve as a planning document for future research.  The initial list of 36 targets has, in the past several months, expanded to 136, with many more to come.  This presentation will be an interim progress report, featuring some of the more interesting cases such as the wreck of the USS Saginaw, Neches AO-5, Macaw ASR-11, and the Stickleback SS-415.  In addition, classes of sunken destroyers, battleships, service craft, amphibious vessels, and naval aircraft will also be noted.      

The Concrete Barge of Shipwreck Beach: a Tough Nut to Crack  
Richard W. Rogers Researcher, Pilialoha Consultants,
Hale`iwa, O`ahu

The most obvious shipwreck in the State of Hawaii has proven to be the most illusive to document.  "Big Shipwreck," as it is usually referred to on the Island of Lanai, has been featured in numerous photo essays of the island and referred to as a "Liberty ship," "a wayward tanker being towed to Japan," a "Concrete Mud Barge" and a "Y.O. Tanker."  One author even named her the Helen Port Townsend.   This paper will explore the origins of those identifications, which actually help identify other shipwrecks in the vicinity.  It will also help to explain the difficulties in identifying ships which have been abandoned rather than wrecked by accident.  Maritime architecture made some notable advances during World War II, concrete ships being on of them.  This paper will also touch on the history of that type of ship and explain how important they were to the Pacific Theatre of World War II.

The Interisland Steamship SS Kaua`i 
Don Froning Jr.
Certificate Alumnus Maritime Archaeology and History Program, University of Hawai`i at Mānoa

The steamship S.S. Kaua'i served the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company from 1895 until she ran aground at Mahukona Harbor, on Christmas Eve 1913.  She was built in San Francisco in 1887 by Boole and Beaton as the Cosmopolis, and steamed between San Francisco and Cosmopolis, Washington until she was sold and sent to Hawai`i.  Her service in the Hawaiian Islands was fairly representative of a late nineteenth-century steamship; she plied the rough channels hauling various trade goods, most notably sugar.   The manner in which the S.S. Kauai met her demise was also representative, and illustrates the treacherous conditions many vessels faced as they loaded and unloaded their cargoes at coastal ports that offered little protection from wind and currents.  In 1993, a field school conducted by the University of Hawai`i and East Carolina University produced a plan view (top view) of the remains of a steamship at Mahukona Harbor; the wreck is believed by many to be that of the S.S. Kauai.   The nature of the archaeological remains was later shown to be representative of shallow water steamship wrecks in the Hawaiian Islands: the boiler, engine, propeller shaft, and propeller were found at the site.  Research conducted during a 1997 field school from the University of Hawai`i led to the production of a site map of the wreck referenced to the shoreline, as well as elevation (side view) drawings of the major components.  The dynamic site environment of Mahukona Harbor was proven in 1998 when a storm rolled the 10 foot scotch boiler over 100 yards from the underwater wrecksite to the shore.   More research should be done at this site, as well as many other known shallow water steamship sites in Hawai`i which have not yet revealed all of their clues about interisland steamship service.  

The Elusive Il’men: Searching for One of California’s Earliest Known Shipwrecks  
James M. Allan PhD
Principal Project Director, William Self Associates, Orinda, California

Late in the evening of June 18, 1820, the Russian American Company’s brig Il’men grounded behind the projecting cape of Point Arena in northern Alta California.  The ship quickly sanded in, and Company officials subsequently decided to abandon her, leaving behind the remains of a vessel that had been directly involved in some of the Company’s more notorious misadventures.  Built in the East Indies, the Il’men first served the needs of a Boston merchant, and later became a workhorse for the Russian American Company.  The small brig was involved in the rescue of survivors from the wreck of the St. Nicholas, in the misguided Hawaiian escapades of George Schaffer, in the Company’s embarrassing political tussle over poaching in Spanish waters, and in the early reconnaissance of the location for the Company’s southernmost outpost, the colony at Ross all before entering the archaeological record as one of California’s earliest known shipwrecks.  In 1995, archaeologists from UC Berkeley and the Institute for Western Maritime Archaeology initiated a research project to locate the remains of the Il’men.  This paper will provide a brief history of the ship, and our on-going attempts to locate her remains.

United States Navy, Pacific Fleet  
Roxanne Merritt, Commander, USN
Public Affairs Officer, CPF staff

As the world's largest Naval Command, the Pacific Fleet team supports our nation's interests and theater strategy in an area that includes half the world's surface and more than half its population.  The Pacific Fleet's area of responsibility also includes the world's second and third largest economies -- Japan and China.  One third of the United States' trading partners are in the region, and more than half of Arabian Gulf oil flows through it.  These elements make the region the center of competition for investment and resources among powerful nations.  As a result, the importance of the Pacific to national and world security cannot be overstated.  The size of the Pacific Fleet operating area requires a mobile and flexible Naval force to carry out our national objectives and secure our vital interests.

Development of the 63-foot Miami Aircraft Rescue Boat  
Jean E. Buhler Naval Architect and Marine Consultant, Miami Shipbuilding Corporation

The use of boats to rescue pilots and passengers in downed aircraft is as old as the aircraft industry itself.  Organizationally, anything that floated would do, there were no standard rescue boats.  Prior to WWII the British had been using vessels akin to the Coastal Motor Boats of WWI for rescue Boats.  In 1939 the Union of South Africa, through the British Purchasing Commission, requested a proposal for high speed rescue vessels and specifically required that the builder guarantee a speed of 42 knots.  Miami Shipbuilding Corporation, having built PT-1 and PT-2 and having been unsuccessful in being awarded a contract to build additional PT-Boats, responded to the challenge.  This paper covers the MSC response to the request for a rescue craft from the concept through the design, development, modifications and production of 329 vessels, which became the standard for the U.S. navy for over a decade.  Miami Shipbuilding Corporation was owned totally by the Buhler family and the Author was on board from the beginning, having come up through the "Hawse Pipe," so to speak, from a "Bull-gang" laborer to the principle naval architect by the end of the war.  The Paper covers some design details, construction and production, trials and a few "tribulations." 

USS Arizona. 
Daniel Martinez,
Historian, National Park Service, USS Arizona Memorial

No abstract available
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 13th Annual Symposium, February 17-19, 2001
ABSTRACTS (in order of presentation)

Nautilus and Sea Wolf: Fiction and Reality

John P. Craven: Professor/Author/Ocean Engineer, Marine Option Program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa; Common Heritage Corporation, Honolulu, Hawai`i

Dr. John Craven has worn many hats in his long career in the U.S. Navy and civilian maritime fields: chief scientist of the Polaris missile project, Man in the Sea program, the development of the DSRV...and now President of the Common Heritage Corporation and professor and advisor for the Marine Option Program at the University of Hawai`i. His presentation at the symposium will be the historical interaction between fictional and factual submarines named Nautilus and Sea Wolf, including the role that fiction played in their design and operation from WWII to the present day.

The F-4 Disaster
Captain Gerald L. Hofwolt, Director, USS Bowfin Museum, Pearl Harbor, O`ahu, Hawai`i

This presentation will cover the underlying causes and events surrounding the loss of the submarine, USS F-4 in Honolulu Hawaii on March 25, 1915. Captain Hofwolt will provide a slide review of the events and the timeline for the loss of the F-4 and the subsequent recovery efforts and the impact this first loss of an American submarine had on submarine operations and safety.

Taken from the newspaper accounts, letters and the formal report of the Navy Board of Inquiry, his story provides an interesting look into submarine operations at the beginning of our Nation’s exciting love affair with the submarine.

Kimmel's Dilemma
Burl Burlingame, Journalist/Historian, Honolulu Star Bulletin, Honolulu, Hawai`i

The Pearl Harbor attack was a two-pronged affair, both with aerial and underwater approaches. Admiral Husband Kimmel had resources enough to defend against one, and since the submarine assault was the more likely, Pearl Harbor was ably defended in that arena. And indeed, the Americans fought a running battle against half of the Imperial Navy's submarines fleet in December, 1941, and the battle went on the West Coast. The Americans won the battle against the submarines, but were unprepared for the aerial attack. Evidence of the submarines assault lies mainly in the use of five "midget" submarines that were lost at Pearl, and the search goes on for the midget submarine sunk in the first moments of the attack, in the first shots of the Pacific War.

Background on the H.L. Hunley
William Dudley, Director, Naval Historical Center, Washington D.C.

The advent of the Civil War provided a naval challenge to the Confederacy. The Union's naval blockade slowly gathered strength after the surrender at Fort Sumter and the Confederate naval authorities had to improvise a strategy to counter the U.S. Navy's efforts to shut down trade between Great Britain and the Confederacy. The Confederate Navy commenced the fitting out of merchant ships as gunboats, constructed ironclads suited to shallow water warfare, purchased ships from Britain that they converted to high seas raiders, and developed contact and electric torpedoes (mines), and laid down underwater obstructions to block or restrict channels. The Confederate Army set up coastal batteries to oppose Union use of southern rivers and brought the H.L. Hunley, an ingeniously constructed submarine, from Mobile to Charleston.

Beginning in 1862, entrepreneurs and engineers from New Orleans and Mobile had originated plans and built precursors known as Pioneer and American Diver and constructed H.L. Hunley. General Beauregard ordered Hunley to be used as an offensive weapon against the steam frigates that were blockading Charleston. In February, 1864, Hunley sortied and successfully attacked USS Housatonic three miles off Sullivan Island. Housatonic sank quickly, a victim of Hunley's spar torpedo, but Hunley was apparently damaged or the crew became disoriented in the attack, and Hunley never returned.

In 1995, novelist Clive Cussler's NUMA team discovered the Hunley wreck site and within a year, a federal-state team of Navy, National Park Service, and South Carolina underwater archaeologists had confirmed its identity and began preparations that resulted in Hunley's recovery on August 8, 2000. This illustrated presentation will cover the historical context and archeological considerations that surrounded the issue of Hunley's recovery and excavation. Hunley's importance must not be underestimated. This vessel augured a revolutionary advance in naval warfare that fulfilled its true role in unrestricted submarine warfare during World Wars I and II.

The Kaiser's Sub off Angel's Gate: In Search of the UB-88
Patrick Smith,
Director of Operations, Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources, Mar Vista, California

In 1921 the US Navy "disposed" of the surrendered German U-boat, UB-88 a short distance off Long Beach, California. The "Jerry tin-fish" as it was called by the LA Times was one of six German submarines, the Ex-German Submarine Expeditionary Force, that came to the United States to help rebuild flagging support for the Victory Bond Drive (bonds were sold from the decks of these vessels), and to be studied by Navy engineers. In her two-year odyssey , she covered some 15,000 miles to reach her final resting place off the Southern California coast. This presentation will look at this vessel’s history as well as the ongoing efforts to relocate the remains of this once deadly enemy.

Mahele Documentation (1848-1853) of Hawaiian Maritime History
Victoria S. Creed, President, Waihona `Aina Corporation; Historian, Cultural Surveys Hawai`i Incorporated, O`ahu, Hawai`i

In the 14,500+ records of the Mahele (1848-1853) where all citizens of Hawaii placed claims for their lands and give its provenance, at least 36 vessels and 46 captains are named in more than 75 records (waihona.com). Vessels include a "barque", schooners, brigs, a frigate, a ferryboat or "waapa" [wa`apa] and other more generally described vessels, ships and boats. With reference to Rhys Richards "Shipping Arrivals and Departures for 1820 to 1840" (2000), Mahele documents give some captains’ names missing from the Richards’ lists of ships. They also name a few vessels he has not included.

The earliest ship arrival noted in these documents is that of the ship Duff coming from China in 1799, which is in the testimony of John White. Frequently, a captain claims land or gives testimony for others. Captains usually name their vessels and sometimes give dates of voyages. Some Hawaiian vessels were used to deliver testimony to O`ahu from other islands. Sometimes, vessel arrivals are mentioned to provide time markers for occupation of land. In particular, many Hawaiians refer to the arrival of the "Peleleu," Kamehameha I’s armada on their island, claiming they held the land at that time. Captains were frequently repaid in gifts of land for their services and in the M hele they claim these lands, or families make claims for deceased or departed captains. Locations of captains’ residences are used as directionals to and from other properties. Auxiliary maritime occupations mentioned are canoe and sail makers, ship builders, and mates.

These instances in the Mahele documents give a marvelous flavor of the tremendous social and economic impact of foreign arrivals on or before 1848 and the vestiges of traditional maritime practices. While native Hawaiian claims, involving traditional maritime occupations, are generally restricted to fishermen or to locations of canoe landings, trees for making canoes, or a place to store canoes, there are a number of Hawaiian personal names related to seafaring, such as Nawaakaua (War canoes), Kawaakaukahi (wa`a kauk hi - single canoe), Nawaakaulua (double canoe) and at least one place name, wa`akau (head fisherman’s canoe).

Secrets of Stone Canoes and Ships: What can Petroglyphs Tell Us?
J. Mikilani Ho, Researcher/Historian, Rock Art Research and Preservation, O`ahu, Hawai`i

What do they mean? How do you interpret them? These are questions often asked about rock art. These questions are critical when the cultures which produced them leave no oral traditions or have living elders to provide answers. This is the case with most of the archipelagoes which make up the East Polynesian triangle. These oceanic cultures were dependent on sea and ocean going vessels for their survival on many fronts: subsistence, social, economic and political. Yet in their rock art record, images of canoes comprise about 5% of the total corpus of rock art motifs. More European sailing vessels are depicted than canoes on any of the major archipelagoes which have rock art. If the canoe was such an important factor in the everyday life of prehistoric Polynesians, why is there a rarity of them in the rock art record while there is an abundance of European sailing vessels? Perhaps we have been asking the wrong questions. Do present interpretations say more about the observers than the people and the culture which produced the rock art? It would be more useful to ask questions about things that were important to the culture. How was it used? What is its function? Can we determine its cultural context and its relationship to function, space and time? This type of inquiry leads to positive information that reveals some of the changes that were taking place in an evolving society. Although Hawaii will be the main focus of the paper, examples from other East Polynesian archipelagoes will be presented to demonstrate that ancestral cultural patterns link these islands and support the new line of inquiry regarding rock art traditions and practices.

Transpacific Junks: Believe It Or Not
Hans Van Tilburg, Lecturer, Maritime Archaeology and History Program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

While scholars have toyed in the past with the somewhat speculative idea of ancient transpacific sailing voyages from the East, there is a more tangible modern phase of the same topic that has yet to receive much historical attention. From the mid-19th to the mid-20th century, a handful of traditional Chinese sailing vessels made their way from China to North America. These were not the modern "export market" seen so commonly today, craft specifically made in Hong Kong and Taiwan for West Coast yachting consumers; nor were they representative of modern wooden boat construction in China, including western rudders and diesel engines and other conveniences. These were much older boats representing historical working vessels from the China coast. The arrival of these old vessels allowed observers a glimpse into the maritime past of a foreign empire. Or it should have, if contemporary viewers back then had realized what they were looking at…but for a host of reasons, these eastern vessels were almost totally misunderstood by western observers. This was true 100 years ago, and surprisingly it is generally still true today.

These vessels that crossed the Pacific from Asia within this roughly 100 year period, what do they represent? and what were they believed to have represented at the time of their arrival? What do these vessels and their recent voyages tell us? Answering this question involves historical archaeology, underwater archaeology, ethnohistory, technological history, folklore, and of course archival research. Documentary and photo archives with important information exist from Victoria to Vancouver to San Francisco to San Diego. The remains of at least two vessels from the handful that made the crossing have already been located. The task now is to put these strands of research together in one place in an organizational framework that makes sense, one that can place these last few examples of Chinese junks within an overall typology of Chinese nautical evolution. Perhaps a little light can be shed on the maritime Asian story, one that has a significant amount of impact on the history of the world.

Thor Heyerdahl, Henry Lee, and the origins of the Kon Tiki Theory
Erika Ginsberg, Author/Researcher, Pangaea Expeditions, O`ahu, Hawai`i

Abstract not available

Shipwrecks in Maui County: an Exercise in Resources
Captain Rick Rogers, Independent Researcher, Pilialoha Consultants, Haleiwa, Hawai`i

The maritime history of any island will likely take the researcher to many Libraries, Archives, Historical Societies and through many linear feet of micro-film as well as visits with fellow historians and other people with related interests. Oftentimes, the search for documents can be as rewarding as the fieldwork and getting in the ocean to find or identify a specific shipwreck or marine site.

This talk will review the diverse resources that have been explored to document the maritime calamities of Maui County and offer some insight into where other researchers might look for particular types of information. It will also serve as a primer on the rich history of the waters surrounding the Islands of Maui, Molokai, Lanai and Kaho‘olawe.

Battlecruisers: Winston Churchill's Often Misunderstood "Splendid Cats."
Todd Aoki, Graduate Student Maritime Archaeology and History Program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

The battlecruiser concept is one of naval history's most frequently misunderstood ships. Many people conceive a battlecruiser as either a fast battleship or an overgrown cruiser. In truth, the battlecruiser is neither. Admiral Sir John Fisher, the man who created the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought, envisioned the battlecruiser as a high speed ship armed with battleship caliber main armament. These battlecruisers would have the speed to carry out reconnaissance for the fleet while also having the firepower to destroy any enemy scouts.

Unfortunately, the Admirals of the Grand Fleet could not resist putting the firepower of the battlecruisers in their line of battle. This usage stemmed from the Battle of Tsushima in particular, as well as to a lesser extent the Spanish-American War and the Sino-Japanese war. The battlecruiser suffered badly in the line of battle due to their lighter armor. However, when utilized in their intended role, they performed admirably.

This paper traces the development of battlecruisers using examples of classes representative of the concept, such as HMS Invincible and SMS Von der Tann, HMS Lion and SMS Seydlitz, the Dunkerque class, the Scharnhorst class, and the Alaska class battlecruisers. In addition, the forerunner and ultimate descendants of the type will also be discussed.

Steamships in Hawai`i
Donald J. Froning, Graduate Student, Program in Maritime Studies, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina

Steam power was developed in England in the eighteenth century, and by the end of that century engineers had realized its potential in maritime applications, and had designed small and simple steam-powered vessels. The nineteenth century clearly illustrated the evolution of steam power, and thus steamships. Although sailing vessels retained certain advantages, this steamship evolution began to reveal advantages of steam power, perhaps the most basic of which was non-dependence on wind for propulsion, and therefore a potential for more reliable scheduling.

It was the California Gold Rush that brought large numbers of steamships into the Pacific. After a slow down in the gold rush, some of these ships made their way into Hawaiian waters in the early 1850s. These first steamships in Hawai’i were not successful for a few reasons, primarily because they were not suited for rough Hawaiian waters. Within a few decades, however, improved steamers more fit to work in rough waters arrived in Hawai’i, and proved to be well-suited for inter-island commerce, transporting a variety of products and passengers, but the market in which these inter-island steamers were perhaps most successful was the sugar industry. The steamers brought thousands of bags of sugar from various sugar landings throughout the islands back to Honolulu, where they were loaded onto other ships for transport to the U.S. mainland.

Many of these sugar landings were not ideal sites for steamship anchorages. Few were actually located in harbors with protection from the open sea. Challenges from these anchorages, as well as from unforgiving coral reefs caused many steamships to become shipwrecks. The historical record would suggest that more shipwrecks ran aground on reefs in Hawai’i than perished in the open seas. Although often still tragic in terms of cargo losses, running aground usually meant fewer crewmen lost, and in terms of underwater archaeology could mean a better chance for discovery and investigation. Throughout the islands, the remains of many shipwrecks are still present in shallow waters. The remains of steamships are often easier to find than the remains of sailing vessels, since metal survives in seawater much better than wood, and steamers typically were built with more metal than sailing vessels. Although many steamship sites have been located in Hawai’i, few have been properly documented, and there are many more that have not yet been located. We gotta get out there!

The Hidden History of the African Diaspora in Hawai`i
Fred McGhee, Lecturer, Hawai`i Pacific University, Honolulu, O`ahu

The European and American exploration and subsequent colonization of the Hawaiian islands involved people of African descent. By the time Captain Cook undertook his legendary journeys of exploration into the Pacific, the Slave Trade was already over three centuries old. As European and American Empire cut a new swath through the Pacific world, the social and economic institutions and relationships that had become part of the Atlantic world were in large measure transferred. This did include the slave trade and plantation agriculture, although as this paper will discuss, work and service in the Pacific offered unique and challenging opportunities for Black sailors in particular. This paper briefly outlines some highlights of the Black presence in Hawai'i and argues that future discussions of the multicultural nature of contemporary Hawaiian society must include the experiences and perspectives of peoples of African heritage.

Charting the Changing Shoreline at West Loch of Pearl Harbor over 6,000 years: Evidence from the Prehistoric Archaeological Record
Thomas R. Wolforth, Archaeologist, Scientific Consultant Services Incorporated, Hilo, Hawai`i

Extensive archaeological investigations were conducted at the floodplain and delta of Honouliuli Stream on O'ahu. Remains of prehistoric agricultural pondfields, fishponds, and habitation were encountered below a meter of historically deposited sediments. The geomorphology of the river valley, and the fauna from the archaeological sites provide information sufficient to describe and date the changes in the area's paleoenvironment.

Prior to the influx of early Polynesians at West Loch, this locale was a lagoon. The ocean level dropped, causing Honouliuli Stream to downcut and drop sediments into the lagoon. People arrived in the valley circa A.D. 1000, and began to farm, hunt, and make fishponds and pondfields. The destruction of a substantial portion of the old forest during prehistory in the area is inferred by the presence of erosional events and rapid reduction of bird remains identifiable in the archaeological record. The valley continued to fill with sediments. Fishponds and pondfields were ultimately silted in. Intensive agriculture in the area during the 19th century was responsible for more siltation in the valley, eventually covering the prehistoric remains and sending the delta further into West Loch.

Unknown Fish Pond at Honokohau Ahupua`a
Elisa Junqueira, Graduate Student, Maritime Archaeology and History Program, University of Hawai`i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawai`i

Various archaeological studies have been conducted at Kaloko and Aimakapa fish ponds, located on the north Kona coast on the Island of Hawai`i. Remnants of fishponds and fish traps surround this general area, suggesting a community sustained by aquaculture. However, there are no reports or surveys about the collection of rocks, now underwater, which appears to form a sea wall structure located adjacent to Aimakapa Pond on the ocean side.

This study is being conducted to map and to determine the possibility of another fishpond and its dimensions. Measuring and photographing of the sea wall are being conducted in shallow water during lowest tides. The underwater survey of a possible submerged sea wall that once enclosed a portion of the ocean is only possible during high tide for better visibility and safety. Data on water circulation within the area are also being gathered. Identification of marine species encountered is being recorded as well.

To date, the result is a measured sea wall that has an average width of 32.4 feet for about 482 feet, perpendicular to shore. At the end of this structure, a shallow reef runs northward, parallel to the beach. No underwater connection has yet been observed. The purpose of mapping, photographing and evaluating the underwater features adjacent to Aimakapa pond is to document, collect evidence and define dimensions for an interpretation of the aquaculture method used by ancient Hawaiians that once thrived in the study area.

Recent Research on USS Arizona: Perspectives and Directions
Kathy Billings, Superintendent, National Park Service, USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor, Hawai`i

The National Park Service has been conducting documentation and research on the USS Arizona and USS Utah for two decades. Recently, the USS Arizona Memorial, the NPS Submerged Resources Center, the US Navy and National Geographic formed a partnership to document the hull interior, record large main deck areas with graphic imagery and investigate deterioration processes of the ship's structure. Metallurgists from the University of Nebraska and a microbiologist from the Medical University of South Carolina among others have been involved in this multi-disciplinary investigation. This report will provide a progress report on recent fieldwork and present directions for future inquiry.

MCBH Kane`ohe Bay: Submerged Resources Survey
Megan Moews, Graduate Student, Maritime Archaeology and History Program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

On December 7th, 1941, the Japanese Imperial fleet attacked American military installations on the island of O`ahu, Territory of Hawai`i. Among the extensive damage, the US Navy’s largest concentration of long range PBYs (navy terminology for "patrol bomber Consolidated" flying boats) at the Kane`ohe Naval Air Station was almost completely destroyed. From June 19th to July 21st of 2000, the University of Hawai`i held its Maritime Archaeology Techniques Course. The objective for the course was to conduct a pre-disturbance survey in the PBY mooring area for submerged cultural artifacts on the bottom of the bay. (One PBY had previously been surveyed in 1994; documents indicated the possibility of several other casualties from the attack.) Students conducted remote sensing survey with both magnetometer and sidescan sonar, and then made assessment dives on selected targets. Artifacts were recorded by measured sketches and/or photographs. Only small scattered debris was discovered in evidence above the silt. This survey eliminates the possibility of another relatively intact PBY sitting above the mud line within the mooring area, and highlights the destructive nature of the attack and the extremely high sedimentation rate in the southeast sector of Kane`ohe Bay.

Pohnpei Underwater Archaeology 2000: Results from the Field
Suzanne S. Finney, Graduate Student, Program in Maritime Studies, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

In August 2000 a team of maritime archaeologists from the University of Hawaii and East Carolina University returned to Pohnahtik Harbor in Madolenihmw Province to further document the wreck site located during the 1999 fieldwork. The team ultimately located three wrecks and was able to map two of them. These wrecks are thought to be the remains of whaling ships sunk by the Confederate raider CSS Shenandoah at the close of the Civil War. This presentation will discuss these findings and what the future holds for the harbor as an historic site. The project was funded by the National Park Service American Battlefield Protection Program with the support of the Pohnpei State Historic Preservation Office.

Sail and Steam at Koloa Landing: Testing an Anthropological Theory
Alexander Hazlett, Graduate Student, Maritime Archaeology and History Program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

In The Persistence of Sail in the Age of Steam, Donna Souza argues that sailors in the nineteenth century adapted to the introduction of steam technology by adopting those aspects of steam machinery that could make their jobs easier while allowing them to maintain their traditional practices as well. Rather than adopting steam propulsion and giving up sail, sailors instead borrowed steam deck machinery to hoist and lower sails and loads onboard sailing vessels. Souza bases this assertion upon the results of surveys of a number of wrecks on the reefs of the Dry Tortugas, off the coast of Florida. What remains to be seen is whether this assertion holds true for other locations and ships of the same time. A survey of similar shipwrecks at Koloa Landing may allow us to test the applicability of Souza's theory about nineteenth century shipping.

Today, all that remains of Koloa Landing is a stony ramp on a little-traveled side street on the south shore of Kauai, but in the latter half of the nineteenth century it was the third largest whaling port in Hawaii as well as the port of entry and site of Kauai's customs station. During the heyday of Hawaii's involvement in the whaling industry, up to 50 ships at a time might be anchored offshore, loading provisions before setting out for the south Pacific or the Arctic Ocean. The landing also supported the Koloa Plantation, one of the first and longest lasting of Hawaii’s sugar plantations. While passengers could embark interisland vessels at Nawiliwili, Koloa Landing saw most of the freight transferred to and from the island. Unlike many of her sister ports, which have been maintained and expanded, Koloa Landing was never built up, and was closed in the early twentieth century.

Historical records indicate that between 1846 and 1902, a dozen ships wrecked on the reefs at Koloa. These included both sail and engine driven vessels, ranging in size from 70 to 240 tons. If Souza's assertion is correct, the wrecks should show the adoption of deck machinery over time.

I propose that a non-disturbance survey should be made of the water of Koloa Landing and the reefs on either side, utilizing magnetometer and side-scan sonar in addition to scuba divers, in order to test Souza's theories.

Catching the Comet: Avocational Support on a Site of Opportunity
Patrick Smith, Director of Operations, Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources, Mar Vista, California

In February 1999, a National Park Service Ranger reported the appearance of the remains of the lumber schooner Comet on remote Simonton Cove beach on San Miguel island within the Channel Islands National Park. This vessel which was lost in August 1911, and soon thereafter completely covered by beach sands, has only been rarely exposed since that time, and typically, for very short periods. This presentation will show how the rapid response of Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (CMAR), an avocational group that works with the National Park Service on submerged cultural resource projects, allowed the Park to take quick advantage of this unique opportunity to document this rarely exposed vessel.

Seafloor Imaging in the Archaeological Context
Thomas Reid, President, Oceanic Imaging Consultants, Honolulu, Hawai`i

Abstract not available
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12th Annual Symposium, February 19-21, 2000
ABSTRACTS (in order of presentation)

Arizona’s Oil: Where is It, How Much is There, and Can We Find It Before It Finds Us?
Bradley A. Rodgers, associate Professor, Program in Maritime Studies, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina

This paper is an initial attempt to ask the question of what became of the Arizona as it lay on the bottom for the past 59 years, and in particular, why are drops of fuel still seeping to the surface, and does this fuel pose a danger to Pearl Harbor today? Historically speaking, the Navy’s immediate concern following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941, was not the salvage of remaining oil from the battleships sunk near Ford Island. The obvious problem was to get these fighting ships back into action as soon as possible, any way possible. Naturally a sort of triage took place with the warships receiving attention according to how badly they were damaged. Three: Arizona, Utah and Oklahoma were given their last rights as cost and time effective salvage of these battleships did not prove practical.  Arizona’s anatomy is the first clue in asking where the oil is located. Therefore, the first part of this paper will look at typical battleship anatomy in relation to the fuel bunkers. As form follows function the Arizona will be compared to other contemporary ships in making a best guess concerning where to look for the oil. Of course, hand in hand with this question is the question of how much oil could be left in the ship. To examine this question it will be necessary to use historical and archaeological data to reflect on the effects of the sinking. Finally, why should we be concerned with the oil? Will it stay in the ship bunkers or someday escape, creating an ecological disaster? This is largely an archaeological conservation question concerning the effects of sea water on large steel structures. This question’s answer will ultimately reflect on how we view the Arizona and treat it in the future; as a war memorial that should be allowed to slowly decay, or as an active historical site that deserves continued preservation. 

The Battle of Midway
William S. Dudley, Director, Naval Historical Center, Washington D.C.   

The Battle of Midway, fought on 4 June 1942, was the pivotal battle between the United States and Japan in World War II. It changed the entire course of the Pacific War, and it was won by a relatively small force of U.S. ships and planes against the combined might of the entire Japanese Navy. This paper will provide an illustrated history of the event. It will consider the battle in relation to the capabilities of both antagonists, placed in the immediate context of the commitment of the United States to support the Allies in the European War and the strategic ramifications of the Battle of the Coral sea which occurred one month earlier. I will discuss the personalities of Admirals Nimitz, Spruance, Fletcher,Yamamoto, and Nagumo, the role of naval intelligence and code breaking, the tactical crisis facing the Japanese fleet during the critical approach and attack phase, and the elements of surprise, luck, and the calculated risk in the American response. Superb heroism and intuitive combat leadership brought about the climactic event of the battle: the sinking of four Japanese aircraft carriers in one day. While emphasizing the role of naval aviation, the paper will also stress the contribution of all the military units that contributed to the American victory in this battle, including the Marine Corps ground and aviation units defending Midway Atoll, and the participation of USAAF B-17 bombers. Finally, I will discuss battle’s casualties and losses and the significance of the Battle of Midway in historical perspective.

Historic Photographic Interpretation of the Attach on O`ahu, December 7th, 1941
Daniel Martinez, Historian, National Park Service, Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor National Landmark, O`ahu, Hawai`i

Abstract not available

USS Arizona: Cultural Site vs. Natural Ecosystem
Kathy Billings, National park Service Superintendent, USS Arizona Memorial, Honolulu, Hawai`i

The USS Arizona is a shipwreck protected by an evolving ecosystem in Pearl Harbor. The ship itself is a potential threat to the ecosystem that currently protects it. The paradox is what to do with a culturally sensitive site that could pollute the surrounding environment. The issues include protection of the environment, sacredness of the shipwreck, protection of the NHL, ownership by a different agency, technology, and safety. The presentation will include slides, video, and powerpoint. The end of the presentation will be open for comments and suggestions from the audience.

Recovering History: Implementing Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge's Historic Preservation Program
Lou Ann Speulda, Historian/Historical Archaeologist, Nevada Fish & Wildlife Office, Reno, Nevada
Robert Shallenberger, Midway Atoll Refuge Manager, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Midway Atoll Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu, Hawai`i

This presentation reviews the dynamics of the historic preservation program developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service since the transfer of Midway Atoll from the Navy in 1997. The paper will begin with a discussion of the Programmatic Agreement that set the stage for the treatment of historic properties and the recently completed Historic Preservation Plan which will guide future activities. Yet, the true value of a planning document is its applicability. Implementing a plan requires a team approach, balance, luck, and many interested participants. To date our focus has been on recovering the physical features associated with the Battle of Midway, the World War II Naval Facility, and the Commercial Pacific Cable Company Station. For the past two years an important element of our hands-on approach has been through a partnership with the Oceanic Society Elder hostel program. A review of our progress treating historic properties will be presented. The refuge has received funding through a National Park Service Assistance Grant and is a recipient of a Save America 's Treasures Grant. We look forward to accomplishing many critical tasks in the next several years as we emphasize conservation treatments and interpretation of these important properties. The paper will close with a brief summary of the projects and partners that contribute to the historical values of the atoll and vision of its future condition. 

James Robinson, Shipbuilder in the Kingdom
Frank Ward Hustace III, Director of Development, The Island of Hawai'i YMCA, Kamuela, Hawai'i

James Robinson was destined for a life at sea. Born in 1798 in Poorfleet, England near London's busy docks, Robinson left home at an early age for a life of adventure on the high seas. Good fortune always seemed to smile on his endeavors, and the events of his life give us a glimpse into the lives of the hardy Western seamen who frequented Hawaiian waters in the early heyday of Pacific whaling.   As a young teen, Robinson served an apprenticeship on an East Indies trader, and in 1819, as shipwright aboard the English whaleship Hermes, Robinson made his first circumnavigation of the globe. On that voyage, Robinson's Hermes passed the American brig Thaddeus at Cape Horn, and the race for Honolulu Harbor was on. History records that the Hermes beat the ship carrying the first contingent of New England missionaries into Honolulu Harbor by two weeks.  Two years later, Robinson was again in Hawaiian waters aboard the Hermes. At Honolulu Harbor, the Hermes reunited with her sister ship Pearl, and in April 1821 the two ships set sail for new whaling grounds in the Western Pacific. What happened next forms one of the great tales of seafaring adventure in the Pacific. In the dark hours before dawn, both ships ran aground on an uncharted atoll (known now as the Pearl and Hermes Reef). Marooned on a desolate, waterless islet, Robinson organized a salvage effort among the crew and supervised the construction of a schooner. After four months of steady work, twelve brave volunteers, Robinson among them, sailed their craft 1,000 nautical miles to Honolulu, arriving safely with just two gallons of fresh water left.  Robinson never left Honolulu. After recovering from his ordeal, he sold the schooner to Kalanimoku, the King's regent, and used the proceeds to found Hawai'i's first Western-style incorporated business, Robinson & Company, Shipbuilders. A dominant presence on the Honolulu waterfront for nearly 100 years, Robinson's business prospered. In time, he married a woman of ali'i lineage and raised a large family with many descendents still living in Honolulu to this day. Marriages within the family brought familiar names into Robinson's shipbuilding empire, including Allen, Foster, McWayne, and Ward.  The family has preserved many letters, business correspondence, photographs, and anecdotes about James Robinson, and together these weave a fascinating portrait of a man of strong character and gritty determination who lived and worked at Honolulu Harbor during the era of its most rapid development into a major Pacific port.

Bridging the Gap between Ship and Shore: exploring the relationships between Western maritime culture and the people of Hawai`i
Peter R. Mills, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Hilo, Hilo, Hawai`i

To emphasize and promote the common interests of maritime historians and those interested in Hawaiian culture-change, this paper explores some of the ways Western maritime traditions affected life on Hawaiian shores in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. First, a summary is presented of the abundant ethnohistorical data related to Hawaiian chiefs' adoption of foreign ships, and Hawaiian shipbuilding activities in the early 1800s. The acquisition of foreign ships by Hawaiian ali`i, and the unique vessels manufactured in Hawaiian shipyards, are fascinating expressions of nineteenth century changes in Hawaiian culture. Through interdisciplinary efforts in maritime history, archaeology, and Hawaiian ethnohistory, we have the opportunity to explore how Hawaiians melded Western maritime ship designs, materials, and practices with their own robust maritime traditions. Secondly, this paper reviews the central role that Western sailors played in the process of representing Western culture and values to the Hawaiian world. Seamen provided a major vector in the spread of news and information, and influenced the rapidly changing cultural values of the late eighteenth and nineteenth century. One poignant and largely unknown example is presented in an 1822 rumor that King Kamehameha II (Liholiho) had instituted cannibalism as the appropriate punishment for murder. This rumor is then compared with similar nineteenth century maritime folklore.

East to Rapa Nui
Dr. Ben Finney, Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i
Dr. Bernard Kilonsky, Research Associate, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

Rapa Nui (Easter Island), located some 2000 nautical miles off the coast of Chile at 27 South longitude and 109 West longitude, is the easternmost island known to have been settled by Polynesians. The island's location far to windward with respect to the southeast trade winds, and its small size and lack of a surrounding archipelago to provide a wide navigational target, made Rapa Nui one of the most isolated of the Polynesian outposts. During September-October 1999 the neo-traditional voyaging canoe Hokule`a sailed 1648 nautical miles from Mangareva in the Gambier Islands at the southern end of the Tuamotu archipelago east-southeast to Rapa Nui. Although the experimental validity of this voyage may be criticized because the canoe was fitted with a modern sail rig to enhance windward performance, finding tiny Rapa Nui without using instruments was in itself a major achievement particularly since the abundant bird life that must have guided earlier voyagers to the island no longer exists. Furthermore, it turns out that the new sails were not really crucial to reaching Rapa Nui. Despite fears that the canoe might have to be tacked against the trade winds all the way to Rapa Nui, winds from the north caused by a series of weather fronts passing to the south and cyclogenesis to the west of Hokule'a enabled the crew to sail east by reaching across the wind, the most favorable sailing angle for a traditionally-rigged Polynesian canoe. Hokule`a's voyage and the mid-winter crossings of the whaling ship Navigator which during the 1850s also exploited northerly winds to sail from Pitcairn to South America via Rapa Nui, provide realistic examples of how early Polynesians could have employed seasonal wind shifts to sail so far to the east. 

Broughton: The Trans-Pacific Explorer, William Robert Broughton and the Last Royal Navy Exploring Expedition of the 18th Century
Jim Mockford, Advisory Council Member, Grays Harbor Historical Seaport Authority Brig Lady Washington -- Aberdeen, Washington

William Robert Broughton commanded the last great Pacific exploration by the Royal Navy in the 18th century from 1795-1798. Broughton sailed under Vancouver as commander of the HMS Chatham from 1791 to 1793 during which time he established his credentials as an explorer. Early in the expedition in 1791 Broughton discovered an island in the south Pacific east of New Zealand that he named Chatham Island. Broughton charted the San Juan Islands and undertook a 100-mile journey up the Columbia River by long boat among other notable contributions to exploration. He played a supporting role in discussions with the Spanish over Nootka Sound and with Vancouver’s recommendation for command of another ship Broughton went back to London in 1793 with reports, letters, maps and charts of the expedition. For his efforts Broughton was given command of the HMS Providence and sent back to the Pacific as the final successor to Captain Cook in what became the last Pacific exploring expedition by the Royal Navy in the 18th century.  This paper will examine the effort by William Robert Broughton to complete the geographic work of Captains James Cook and George Vancouver. It will describe Broughton’s encounter with native peoples across the Pacific and some of his career successes and failures as a Lieutenant, Captain, and Commodore. The story of Broughton is one that brings closure to the 18th century age of British exploration in the Pacific because Broughton’s of geographic work along the coast of East Asia helped complete the British map of the North Pacific. This task, the one remaining task left undone from the voyages of Cook and Vancouver, and Broughton’s earlier surveys along the Northwest Coast of America is why this paper describes Broughton as "The Trans-Pacific Explorer." Broughton, like his predecessors, visited Hawaii the essential crossroads of the Pacific for exploring both the eastern and western continental shores. But neither Broughton, nor the HMS Providence could return to Hawaii from Asia because of the shipwreck of HMS Providence at Miyako Island south of Japan in 1797. Recent underwater diving at the shipwreck site still finds artifacts of interest there. However, the story of the shipwreck and Broughton’s contribution to exploration in the Pacific remains largely untold. The lack of attention by maritime historians to this particular explorer will be considered in this paper. It is hoped that discussion will follow leading to further study by historians into the "last Royal Navy exploration of the 18th century." The author will also attempt to compare the observations of native peoples by Cook, Vancouver, and Broughton whose journals provide valuable 18th century perspectives on life in the Pacific. 

The Articulations of Place in the Voyages of Captain Cook
Brian Richardson, Graduate student, Department of Political Science, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

The paper will explore the different ways that places in the world are described in Cook's voyages, from the detailed articulations that provide coordinates and cartographic shapes to the more social and political articulations that appeal to anthropological groups and sovereign power. It is interesting that Cook's description of the world weaves together each of these different ways of articulating the places of the world, ways that sometimes support and sometimes contradict each other. To understand the way that Cook imagines the world, however, it is important to consider first the different discourses of place that he uses and second the way that these discourses are combined into particular narratives describing particular voyages. The paper will conclude by discussing Cook's own status as an explorer in relation to the fixed places he describes. 

Waimanalo Landing: an Underwater Survey (Maritime Archaeology Techniques Course 1999)
Megan Moews, Graduate Student, Maritime Archaeology and History, Marine Option Program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

Here in Hawai’i, as around the world, there are centuries of archaeological resources lying dormant on the ocean floor. Of these resources, many lie undiscovered, hidden beneath the sands or somewhere in the abyssal deep. These submerged "cultural resources" consist of wrecked ships, sunken harbors, and in this particular case a sugar plantation landing site. These cultural resources, just as gold and jewels to a pirate, are treasure a priceless legacy necessary to the understanding of our past. The sugar industry and inter-island steamship trade, interwoven as the warp and weft of a tapestry, create an intricate picture, providing insights into the social, political, economic, and cultural developments encompassing 19th century Hawai’i. During the 1999 Maritime Archaeology Techniques Course, we, as a class of eleven students, two crew chiefs, Don Froning and Suzanne Finney, and instructor Hans Van Tilburg, took a look into these significant ties to Hawai’i’ s past. With this purpose in mind, we conducted our research through the use of scuba, over the remains of a submerged plantation landing site in the shallow waters off Waimanalo Beach Park.  From the time of John Cummin’s Waimanalo Sugar Company in the 1880’s, through the 1930’s, this landing on the windward side of the island of Oahu not only serviced the Waimanalo Sugar Company, but it also functioned as a favorite vacation spot for Hawai’i’ s royalty. At the February symposium, the focus of this presentation will be on these aspects of Waimanalo and plantation history in Hawai’i, along with site identification, geological history, and previous relevant fieldwork conducted. In particular, a great deal of attention will be paid to the methodologies used to engage the site, the instrumentation used, results and interpretations, the sources for the information accumulated, and future recommendations pertaining to the site.

History on the Rocks: A Proposal for Diving Koloa Landing
Alex Hazlett, Graduate student, Maritime Archaeology and History, Marine Option Program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

Early on, Kauai's Koloa Landing was the 3rd largest whaling port in Hawai`i, as well as the port of entry and customs station for Kauai. The Landing also served the Koloa Plantation, with sugar trains running right to the wharf. Lacking natural or manmade breakwaters, between 1841 and 1902 Koloa was the site of at least seven shipwrecks including the 240 ton side-wheel steamship Kalama (one of only two known side-wheel steamship wrecks in the state). I propose to survey the waters in and around Koloa Landing to ascertain whether any of these wrecks are still present. Survey methods would include both physical and remote sensing (magnetometer and possibly side-scan sonar) searches.

United States Revenue-Service Cutter Thetis in Hawaii and Alaska, 1899-1912
Barrett T. (Tom) Beard, Maritime Historian, Port Angeles, Washington

The Hawaiian Islands, up to the time of becoming a territory one hundred years ago, were a haven for Pacific-wide illicit trading. Traders used Hawaii's location and its hundreds of miles of beaches and numerous harbors as surreptitious free trade bases. A lack of customs' enforcement by Hawaiian crown servants encouraged the exchange of goods by outsiders in furs, whale products, sandalwood and opium. Onto this scene, just prior to the first decade of the 20th century, came a ship to enforce the new territory's United States customs' laws. The United States Revenue Cutter Thetis (originally a sealer), a wooden, steam-powered auxiliary sailing ship, protected United State's new expanded geopolitical interests in the Pacific. This paper summarizes the history of the U.S. Revenue-Service from its beginning in 1790 through the introduction of the Thetis in Hawai'i in 1899. The essay goes on to relate brief accounts of the crew's efforts at stopping opium smuggling, preventing destruction of wildlife and saving of lives at sea. These were a few among the many duties carried out by a small, virtually unknown, and little-recorded United States seagoing service by one of its cutters, the Thetis, sailing the broad expanses of both the Hawaiian and Alaskan territories.

Super Battleships
Alan Lloyd, P.E., American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Historian - U.S.S. Missouri Memorial Assn., National Director - Navy League of the U.S., Kailua, Hawai`i 

There were nine super battleships commissioned during the 20th century. Only the four Iowa Class battleships survive today. Four were sunk during World War II, and the British battleship Vanguard was scrapped in 1960. These nine super battleships were intentionally designed to substantially exceed the 35,000 ton standard displacement limit imposed by the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty. This illustrated lecture was prepared as a training session for the senior tour guide training program of the U.S.S. Missouri Memorial.  The objective of this presentation is to familiarize those attending with the technical and engineering differences that set these nine ships apart from the 175 capital ships that were built during the 20th century. The presenter will discuss the technological limitations that forced the earlier ship designers to make tradeoffs between the number and size of the ship's guns, its protecting armor, and its speed (horsepower). He will conclude by illustrating how these limitations were overcome in the Iowa class battleship.  Of the four super battleships that were sunk, two have been located on the ocean floor. The remains of the Tirpitz have been removed as scrap, and the Musashi still lies undisturbed beneath the Sibuyan Sea.

Widows, Wenches, and the Manila Galleon
William McCarthy, Professor, Department of History, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, North Carolina

The relationship of women to the Manila Galleon trade took various forms. In Manila, women were investors in the trade, often widows who earned boletas to ship merchandise for sale in Mexico of their own accord. Other widows were less affluent—survivors of merchants, officials or soldiers. Many of these, including indigenous Filipinas, depended on the largesse of the king for sustenance. The number was comparatively high, as the Spanish economy of the colony was dependent solely on the galleon trade and the annual soccoro from the Mexican treasury. On the galleons themselves, women were relatively scarce. High officials were typically the only passengers who brought their wives to live in the Philippines. Other women who traveled on the galleons were fortune seekers or slaves, often serving as concubines. Occasionally, women also traveled as potential wives for Spaniards resident at Manila.  In sum, the galleon trade provided both a challenge and an opportunity for these women. Permission to engage in the often-lucrative commerce was an unusual privilege during that era. On the other hand, unscrupulous speculators often took advantage of such women and purchased their boletas at discount rates for ready cash. And for fortune seekers, fortune often remained elusive, as many no doubt ended up as part of the dependent class, or were denied access to the galleons altogether at Acapulco, as captains were typically warned to prevent their sailing.

Shipwrecks: Will They Be Wrecked and Abandoned?
Anne G. Giesecke (for Lyndel Pratt, UNESCO)Vice President, Environmental Activities, American Bakers Association, Washington DC

The UNESCO International Convention for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage has had two meetings of government experts and there will be another. This paper will define the major issues being discussed, including the definition of the resource to be covered, the respective authorities in various jurisdictions and management alternatives such as disposition of the artifacts. The development of this document started in 1977 and there seem to be no easy answers to what can or should be done. This paper will frame the debates using the history of the Convention and describing the current interest groups. The UNESCO process is critical to the future of the prehistoric and historic underwater cultural heritage.

CMAR: Symbiotic Submerged Cultural Resource Management
Patrick Smith MA., Director of Operations, Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (CMAR), Mar Vista, California

With the legal mandate of the National Historical Preservation Act imposed on all government entities, organizations such as the National Park Service (NPS), and the National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), find they have the responsibility to identify, assess, and monitor submerged cultural resources. Many times, however, the staff and funding to handle such tasks is lacking. One way to meet this mandate is through cooperative relationships between private groups and state and federal agencies. This presentation will describe the productive multiyear relationship between the avocational group Coastal Maritime Archaeology Resources (CMAR), and two federal agencies, The National Park Service (NPS), and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).  The paper will look at the completed and ongoing projects carried out with the NPS at Channel Islands National Park, California, and the NOAA-sponsored Cape Flattery Survey conducted at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, Washington, and several other Pacific Coast projects. These unions demonstrate the advantages and benefits of such merging, and may serve as a model for other groups and agencies. This paper will discuss how the CMAR and these projects came together, surveyed, mapped and documented areas, and the reports produced from these tasks

The Non-Management of Shipwrecks in Hawai`i
Hans Van Tilburg, Graduate Assistant/Instructor, Marine Option program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

While shipwreck and maritime history research is improving in the islands, we as a state still have a long way to go in this field. This informal presentation will briefly review the diversity of Hawai`i’s maritime past. Following this, the alphabet soup section will take on the roles of the state’s Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR), State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), Marine Option Program’s Maritime Archaeology and History certificate (GMAHCP), Army Corps of Engineers, United States Navy (USN), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and other institutions, with respect to the investigation and management of Hawai`i’s submerged cultural resources.

The Shipwreck Montebello: Resource vs. Risk
Jack Hunter, Archaeologist/Historian, California Central Coast Maritime Museum Association (CCMMA), and California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), San Luis Obispo, California

On the morning of December 23, 1941 just 16 days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor heralding U.S. entry into WWII, an Imperial Japanese submarine torpedoed the 440 ft Union Oil Company tanker S.S. Montebello off the Central California coast. Fifty-five years later, this tanker sits on the seafloor in 900 ft of water with over three million gallons of crude oil still in her holding tanks. This of course makes her an environmental risk requiring concern if not action, to eliminate the potential for environmental harm. While not exactly a high priority cultural site, she is certainly eligible for the National Register and as such merits appropriate cultural resource protection as an historic site. Can agreements be reached between those charged with hazardous site management and those concerned with historic site protection, that are to the satisfaction of all parties concerned?

Shipwreck Beach Survey, Lana`i
Don Froning, Jr., Graduate Student, Maritime Studies Program, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 

For several days in the month of June, 1999, a volunteer team of researchers conducted a shoreline and partial reef survey of eight miles of Lana`i's north shore, an area commonly known as Shipwreck Beach.  The Marine Option Program supported the expedition by making certain equipment available (Nikonos underwater camera, transect tapes, etc.) and the participants paid for the rest of the expenses themselves (plane tickets, camping fees, truck rental, food etc).  The team made measured sketches of certain sites, while taking photographs and GPS locations for many concentrations of artifacts.  At several locations they entered the choppy waters of the north shore and surveyed submerged shipwreck sites.  Comparison with what documentary data exists reveals multiple steam shipwreck sites previously unrecorded for Shipwreck Beach.  Lana`i's north shore served the 19th century interisland maritime community as a dumping ground, a "rotten row," for old vessels.  The difficulty on Lana`i is not finding shipwrecks, but sorting out which pieces came from what vessel.  This represents the first maritime cultural survey of Lana`i's north shore.   

The Search for the Konaliloha
Captain Richard W. Rogers, Independent Researcher, Pilialoha Consultants, Haleiwa, Hawai`i

During the first two weeks in September 1999, members of the Sandwich island Shipwreck Museum and other organizations set out on a voyage of science and adventure to the Kona Coast of the Bog Island of Hawai`i. The endeavor utilized the latest technology to identify magnetic signatures in Kealakekua Bay. It was hoped that this information might lead researchers to the shipwreck known to the Hawaiians as Konaliloha. This paper will review the research philosophy and mission methodology involved in trying to determine if a Spanish galleon was indeed wrecked in Kealakekua Bay during the reign of Keali`ikaloa.

Findings from the Field: Results from the Pohnpei Shipwreck Survey (Phase I)
Suzanne S. Finney, Graduate student, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

In August 1999, a three member field team investigated Pohnahtik Harbor at Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, to search for shipwrecks. The decision to focus on this particular harbor was made after two years of research into shipwrecks and ship activities and information provided by informants who had seen wrecks in this harbor. During the survey, evidence of a wreck was discovered. Items located include bricks, fasteners, copper sheathing and wooden planks. Based on these findings and archival research we suspect this is a l9th century sailing ship, possibly a whaler from the United States. On the strength of further investigation it may even be possible to infer that these remains come from one of the four whaling vessels sunk by the C.S.S. Shenandoah in 1865.A second reason this harbor was chosen as our main focus was to provide evidence for constructing archaeological theory based on geographically based survey areas, rather than wreck based ones. This harbor was a popular rest stop for l9th century American ships but has not been widely used in the 20th century. In addition to looking for wrecks, our goal was to determine if this harbor would be useful to investigate the whole of l9th century ship activity in the Pacific. Unfortunately the heavy siltation deposits created by riverine activity probably precludes this harbor as a place where much cultural material other than shipwrecks may be found.This presentation explains the history behind the Phase One field survey, results of that survey and plans for future investigation. Funding for this project was made possible by grants from the American Association of University Women - Hawaii Chapter, and the University of Hawai`i Arts and Sciences Advisory Council. 

Charles Darwin and the HMS Beagle in Australia
Barbara H. Keating, Professor, Hawai`i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

Darwin, the offspring of affluent parents, never held a salaried position, and never taught in an university. He in fact, paid his way onboard the HMS Beagle. He never again left England after his epic voyage. He became an invalid at the age of 29, never passing a period of 24 hours without many hours of discomfort. But, he was destined to become the most widely recognized scientist in the world. His journal of the HMS Beagle voyage has never gone out-of-print. In this presentation, we will follow in the footsteps of Darwin, and revisit the sites he visited and recorded in his journal. While Charles Darwin was not the first to recognize evolution, he was by far the most persuasive advocate. His contributions to the fields of biology and geology form the foundations of modem science.

La Paloma: The Hawaiian Yacht and the First Transpac Race
Ronald Wallstrom, Maritime Archaeology and History Graduate Student, Marine Option Program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

This paper will deal with the history of the yacht La Paloma and her participation in the first Transpac race of 1906 between San Francisco and Hawai`i. In this paper I will focus on the yacht and the historical background of her participation as well as the actual race in which she finished third out of three entries. In the groundbreaking race which was to make Transpac a well established event through to the present day, the La Paloma played a major part in generating interest within the Hawaiian community of the time and helped establish the interest for Transpac shown today within Hawai`i.The Transpac has always held a special place in the minds of the sailors who participate in them. Known for being one of the safest races ever held (no one has ever died while participating in the race) it has maintained a special place in the history of Trans-Oceanic races. Ultimately my research will try to shed light on the first exciting race and the tremendous interest generated in it by the Hawaiian boat, La Paloma.

Atlantic Cold War
Mark Else, Maritime Archaeology and History Graduate Student, Marine Option Program, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawai`i

In the first fourteen years of the twentieth century a cold war raged between England and Germany. The weapon of choice used in this pre-Great War nationalistic struggle: the ocean liner. Much like the cold war that existed between the United States and Russia between 1950-1970 in the space program, the contest to produce the biggest and fastest ocean liners in the world was a contest that threatened to turn into a hot war at any time. Eventually it did. This battle of national pride is the topic of "Atlantic Cold War." The paper examines the see-saw battle that took place between England and Germany to be masters of the North Atlantic, not using submarines and warships, but the grand elegance of the passenger liner. It is the paper's contention that this struggle for international prestige in the North Atlantic passenger trade primed the nationalistic bomb that went off in 1914 with the start of the Great War and continued in the years leading up to World War II and the post war years. Examined will be the ships themselves and the important technological innovations that were produced out of this contest of superpowers as well as the people involved and the ideology behind the glamour of having the fastest ship on the Atlantic.

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11th Annual Symposium, February 18-20, 1999
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

The Sea War against Japan, 1941-1945
William S. Dudley Director, Naval Historical Center Washington, D.C. WDudley[at]nhc.navy.mil

This paper covers the major phases of the U.S. Naval campaign in the Pacific, 1941-1945, starting with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the U.S. declaration of war, and continues through the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway, Guadalcanal and the Solomons, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, and the Mariana Islands; Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and the dropping of the atomic bomb with every prospect of the necessity of an invasion of the Japanese Home Islands.

Re-discovering Hawaii
Ben R. Finney Professor, Department of Anthropology University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii bfinney[at]hawaii.edu

In 1995 six reconstructed voyaging canoes, Hawaiiloa, Hokulea and Makalii from Hawaii; Te Au o Tonga and Takitumu from Rarotonga; and Teaurere from Aotearoa sailed from the Marquesas Islands to Hawaii to commemorate the settlement of our islands. Although it may never be possible to specify exactly the island group whence sailed the first canoe or canoes to reach Hawaii, on linguistic grounds it is widely thought that the first settlers (or most of the first settlers?) came from the Marquesas. As anticipated, the 1995 voyage demonstrated that because of the location of the Marquesas 1900 miles southeast of Hawaii, to windward with respect to the trades, ancient canoes could easily have made this crossing. Unanticipated incidents that occurred during the voyage were also instructive, not only about hazards of the sea but also about how even today canoe voyages may have an ecological impact.

Beachcombers in Oceania: Mediators between Ship and Shore
David A. Chappell Professor, Department of History University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii dchappel[at]hawaii.edu

Euroamerican vessels in the Pacific had a relatively high rate of desertion, and other sailors arrived on local beaches as shipwrecked castaways. Such beachcombers, who lacked the support of a ships guns, had to fit into indigenous society in order to survive, often marrying a chiefs daughter, learning the language and customs, and contributing to trade and other cross-cultural interaction between passing ships and native islanders. Initially, most beachcombers were foreign, but as time passed and whalers and traders recruited more indigenous seamen, the latter went through initiations to life on foreign vessels and were able to contribute similar skills to local leaders after disembarking on a strange island. Indigenous returnees to their home islands also played this role of cultural broker, serving as translators, war leaders, advisors in trade, and harbor pilots. The importance of Euroamerican beachcombers in the region tended to decline after about the 1840s, when foreign missionaries, traders, planters and consuls began to arrive in the islands in larger numbers, but indigenous beachcombers with seafaring experience on foreign vessels continued to mediate between local societies and Euroamerican ways, including serving as informants to anthropologists because of their foreign language ability. Considering the tendency of sailors to embellish their stories, one wonders how this process affected ethnographic representations of Pacific cultures! Beachcombing continues in the Pacific today, though in a different fashion from early contact, due to the islands enduring Rousseauian image as the last bastion of natural living. In fact, ecotourism may be their latest reincarnation.

Could the Spanish Have Sighted Hawaii before Captain Cook Discovered the Islands in 1778?
Thomas K. Peterson Corvallis, Oregon tpeterson[at]proaxis.com

It seems appropriate to revisit this topic in light of recent marine excavations of Manila Galleons in the Pacific. I have written three original papers on this subject totaling 21 pages ending six years of research. My first paper concerns the connection between the Centurion and Hawaii. The Centurion was Lord Ansons flagship in 1743 that captured a Manila Galleon in the Strait of San Bernardino in the Philippines. When Anson was frustrated at not capturing a Manila Galleon near Acapulco he followed their track across the Pacific towards Manila. When he was a couple of hundred miles south of the Big Island of Hawaii, Lt. Philip Saumarez, his second-in-command, made an entry in the logbook that indicated there might be islands nearby, meaning Hawaii. Certainly the Spanish must have had the same inklings the British had at least once during their two hundred voyages across the Pacific. My second paper is entitled: What Would the Spanish Have Seen if They Approached the Big Island of Hawaii in a Galleon? The Big Island has two of the highest mountains in the Pacific, and Mauna Loa, the southern volcano, is an active one. It seems almost impossible that the Spanish could have passed a couple of hundred miles south of the Big Island and not seen it at least once during two hundred years that they traversed the Pacific before Captain Cook showed up. The third paper deals with refuting works by Erik Dahlgren and John F.B. Stokes, who deny any early Spanish intrusions into Hawaiian waters. It also explains how the Spanish were on the verge of discovering the islands about the time Captain Cook made his discovery.

Time and Place in the Pacific
Richard A. Stephenson Professor Emeritus, East Carolina University Greenville, North Carolina Rasmas31[at]aol.com

The colossal vastness of the Pacific Ocean is unparalleled as a water mass. The early explorers familiar with following a coast or crossing a small body of water were ill-prepared to comprehend the immensity of the Pacific. Geographically, comprehension is established by spatial facts, which are defined by relative location, magnitude and time. Of major importance here is magnitude as represented by distance and direction, while relative location is considered as three dimensional space and time in the period between 1410 and 1779. Each of these components is examined in the context of the Pacific. The purpose of this presentation is to improve the interaction between maritime history and archaeology with geography. Maritime problems cannot be entirely understood without a geographic framework, as it would exclude the spatial dimension. Yet, many researchers fail to employ geographic concepts in their investigations. This is slowly changing. However, it must be understood that by placing a map in the text does not suffice for spatial analyses. This short essay will, hopefully, reinforce the importance of spatial analysis as a means for understanding the maritime history and archaeology of a particular special place like the Pacific.

Maritime Archaeology in Hawaii
Hans Van Tilburg Graduate Student, Department of History Instructor, Marine Option Program University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii 74653.721[at]compuserve.com

This brief discussion will summarize the state of maritime archaeological study in Hawaii, including both past projects (at UH as well as other institutions) and the future plans for field work on Oahu and on Midway.

Finding the Yorktown: Naval History and the Deep Ocean
David A. Mindell Dibner Assistant Professor of the History of Engineering and Manufacturing Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts mindell[at]mit.edu

This paper describes the search and discovery of the aircraft carrier Yorktown in May, 1998 by a team led by Dr. Robert Ballard. The wreck was found in 16,500 feet of water, using a sonar system provided by the University of Hawaii, then explored using the U.S. Navys Advanced Tethered Vehicle. Finding the wreck required close interpretation of historical action reports, and combining those reports with geological and oceanographical information and the capabilities of search and discovery systems. In the end, the wreck was discovered through creative interpretation of sensor data. The author was a historian and engineer on the search team; the talk narrates the search strategy and suggests general conclusions on the use of historical data for deep ocean research.

U.S. Navy Shipwrecks and Submerged Aircraft in Washington State
David M. Grant Archaeologist/Aviation Resource Specialist Underwater Archaeology Branch, Naval Historical Center Washington, D.C. DGrant[at]nhc.navy.mil

The International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) conducted an overview of U.S. Navy shipwrecks and submerged naval aircraft in the State of Washington in 1996. This study was sponsored by the Naval Historical Center (NHC) and administered by the Washington State Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (OAHP). With funding from the Department of Defense Legacy Resource Management Program, the NHC is working with federal and state agencies and private organizations to develop (1) a global inventory of U.S. Navy ship and aircraft wrecks and (2) policies and long-term plans for their management. The NHC has supported several such inventories of submerged Navy cultural resources but, to date, Washington is the only state to consider aircraft. In fact, submerged aircraft prompted this particular inventory because aircraft in Washington waters (especially Lake Washington) were threatened by potential illegal recovery. Of 15 Navy shipwrecks anticipated to be associated with Washington at the outset of the study, only four or five actually lie within state waters while eight more were lost to accident or sunk intentionally off the coast in federal and international waters. In contrast to these few ships, more unrecovered U.S. Navy aircraft were accounted for than initially expected, although these numbers are far fewer than popular estimates. A total of 44 submerged aircraft, or portions of aircraft, was identified for the state. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the shipwreck and aircraft inventory, discusses special challenges facing those researching downed aircraft, and presents a preliminary management plan for the increasingly threatened resource represented by submerged aircraft in Washington State.

Submarine Ruins at Yonaguni Island in Okinawa, Japan
Chie Takahashi (presenter), Certificate Candidate, Maritime Archaeology and History Program University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii chiet[at]hawaii.edu

Masaaki Kimura (author), Professor, Department of Physics and Earth Sciences University of the Ryukyus Ryukyu Islands, Japan kimura[at]sci.u-ryukyu.ac.jp

Artificial submarine ruins were discovered by divers during an underwater survey around the Ryukyu Islands. Also, we have discovered stone tools inside Ginama Submarine Stalactite Cave. The underwater structure off Yonaguni Island is called No. 1 monument or Iseki Point. This structure resembles ancient Okinawan castles, such as Shuri Castle and Nakagusuku Castle on Okinawa Island. These castles are called gusuku in Okinawan language. The No. 1 monument is located at a depth of about 30 meters (approximately 100 feet). The structure contains a cliff, which resembles the side of a stepped Incan pyramid. The size of No. 1 monument is approximately 200m in length, 150m in width, and 20-25m in height. Its features such as flat terraces, straight walls and surface structures of walls strongly indicate the structure to be artificial rather than natural. Additionally, we have discovered more supporting evidence such as scars driven in a wedge on the surface of No. 1 monument, a road that surrounds the structure, and a stone fence composed of huge rock fragments. This evidence suggests that the structure is man-made and it was probably built on land. The carbon-14 testing of coral attached to the structure indicated that the age of coral was around 2,000 years old. However, the uprising of the sea level by ecstatic movement of the post-Ice Age suggests the structure to be 10,000 years old.

Protestants at Nagasaqui: Dutch-Portuguese Competition for Maritime Commerce in the South China Sea and East China Sea during the Early Seventeenth Century
William McCarthy Department of History University of North Carolina at Wilmington Wilmington, North Carolina mccarthyw[at]uncwil.edu

By 1557, Portuguese maritime traders had established themselves in the Moluccas, Timor, Nagasaqui, Malacca and Macau. They conducted a flourishing trade between these ports and their Asian headquarters in India at Goa. Although the most lucrative legs of the trade were those between Nagasaqui and Macau, and between Macau and Goa, the Portuguese were active throughout the region, engaging in regional trade and involving themselves fairly extensively at the Spanish port of Manila. Between 1595 and 1641, however, the Dutch mariners became aggressive competitors. They became very active in pursuing their own commerce in Southeast Asia, and in the course of so doing, dealt severe blows to Portuguese successes in the region. Arriving from both east and west, they harassed both Spanish and Portuguese outposts. They made numerous attacks against Iberian positions, and had their greatest successes against the Portuguese. After their founding of a regional headquarters at Batavia in 1619, they were able to mount an assault on Macau in 1622, establish a factory at Formosa in 1624, replace the Portuguese as the only Europeans permitted to trade at Japan in 1639, and take the fabled emporium of Malacca in 1641. This paper will describe the establishment of these outposts, the processes involved in the fierce maritime and naval competition, and the effective triumph of the Dutch.

Death of a Battleship: The Loss of the USS Arizona
Daniel A. Martinez Historian, USS Arizona Memorial National Park Service Honolulu, Hawaii ph194[at]aol.com

In the opening moments of the attack the crew of the USS Arizona responded to the call of battle stations as the fleet at Pearl Harbor came under attack. The Arizona fought desperately defending herself for ten minutes. What happened during those last moments is the subject of this presentation. A detailed review of the assault of Japanese planes and bombing methods employed is given. Controversy still surrounds the loss of the ship. Historians are split over the issue of whether torpedoes struck the Arizona and what led to the catastrophic explosion that sank her. Evidence in the form of photography, eyewitness testimony and archaeological research will serve to explain the death of the battleship.

Thomas Manby: Seaman and Lover  (this presentation was cancelled)
John Crosse Maritime Historian 2526 West 6th Avenue Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6K IW5

Thomas Manby was a young man of 21 when he signed on aboard Capt. George Vancouvers expedition as a midshipman in 1791. His journal, which is in the form of a letter written to a friend, describes his many romantic encounters with the girls of Tahiti and the Hawaiian Islands, where the expedition used to winter each year. He writes very charmingly about his various love affairs, and it is clear that his feelings were reciprocated. But he was also an excellent seamen as is clear from Capt. Vancouvers use of him. He was promoted to be Master of the Chatham and, later, 3rd Lieutenant of the Discovery. His subsequent career fully bore out his early promise and he retired from the Royal Navy as a Rear-Admiral due to ill health brought on by his arduous service. But he loved women all his life and his name was romantically linked with the Princess of Wales, as was briefly referred to in the recent movie The Madness of King George. However, he married happily, begat two daughters and died in 1834 of an overdose of opium prescribed to relieve his maladies. His heartbroken young wife followed him to the grave six months later. Unlike the journals of Capt. Cooks officers, none of Vancouvers officers journals have yet been published in their entirety. This is due to the dryness of Vancouvers language which was written as an official report to the King. But, life aboard the Discovery and Chatham was anything but dull as the journals of Menzies, Puget and Bell make clear. However, Manbys journal is unique in that it talks of this personal relationships with the women of the islands and for that reason is the most interesting. The paper will conclude with a brief slide show.

Power and Influence in the Civil War Navy: Farragut, Porter, Foote, Wilkes and Navy Secretary Welles
Barbara H. Keating Associate Geophysicist, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii keating[at]soest.hawaii.edu

During the Civil War, officers of the old Navy moved into positions of power within the U.S. Navy. At the time, a political appointee, Gideon Welles, was given the job of Secretary of the Navy as a favor to Senator Hamlin, a close friend of President Abraham Lincoln. Welles had been a deputy postmaster at Hartford, Connecticut, and had served for a short time in the provision and clothing depot at Washington, and was ill-suited for his new job. Great animosity grew up between the civilian Secretary of the Navy and the commanders he dealt with, which is revealed in documents such as the published diary of the Secretary of the Navy, autobiographies, collections of correspondence, and the official records of the Navy. President Lincoln and the Secretary of State often interceded with Welles in favor of particular commanders. This sort of intervention eventually led to friction between Welles and Seward. Wilkes, despite being a popular hero after the Trent Affair, was eventually court-martialed by Welles for leaking departmental communications to the press. President Abraham Lincoln interceded with Welles to reinstate Wilkes but was rebuked by Welles. Welles, as Secretary of the Navy, probably extended the duration of the great Civil War by distrusting his commanding officers (for example, Porter), and by failing to provide the basic support needed within squadrons led by Farragut and Wilkes, so that neither could fulfill their orders in a timely fashion, while Welles repeatedly demanded their obedience to his orders. The behavior of the Secretary of the Navy led to frustration within the ranks and animosities between and among officers in his command. In this presentation we will examine the relations between these great leaders of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War.

A Search for Acceptance: The German Navy and the Policies of Appeasement during the Nazi Era: 1933-1945
Ronald Wallstrom Certificate Candidate, Maritime Archaeology and History Program University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii wallstro[at]hawaii.edu

This paper will explore the policies of Grand Admiral Erich Raeder that led to the appointment at the end of World War II of a German Admiral, Karl Doenitz, to be Hitlers successor. A look at the reasons why the German Navy had the most fanatical devotees to the National Socialist cause will be explored, as well as the indirect results of a strategy of self-annihilation that led to the sinking of ships such as the Bismarck, Graf Spee, etc. A thesis will be presented where the sinkings of these ships were inevitable, so as to fulfill Grand Admiral Raeders attempts to gain respectability for the Navy after a time when it was the pariah of the German military establishment. It will also be suggested that the appointment of Doenitz over leaders of the SS was a direct result of this policy of suicidal appeasement, and that therefore the Navy must be viewed as a more pro-German, pro-National Socialist entity than perhaps has been suggested in previous writings and discourses.

Marine Archaeology from the Captains Perspective
Richard Rogers Pilialoha Consultants Haleiwa, Hawaii plialoha[at]hula.net

While the archaeologists are coordinating their professional staff and applying for permits, a chain of events must occur once a research vessel is hired. In the case of the Haaheo O Hawaii project in Hanalei Bay, the project coordinator was in Washington, D.C. and the research vessel, Pilialoha, was home-ported in Haleiwa, some one hundred miles from the work site. East coast museums and archives held a wealth of information about the vessels construction and early career, but the local archives contained the correspondence to and from the people that knew her in Hawaiian waters. That information was collected, in part, to tell her full story and, in part, to help in the location of her remains. High-tech magnetometers are more efficient for finding old shipwrecks when they are utilized in conjunction with old maps, some of which give hints of wreckage. Long before the bags are packed and the regulators checked out for the summer season, specialized equipment must be designed and constructed to suit the needs of a specific underwater archaeological project. Outboard boat and motor, pumps, compressors, generators, power tools and lots of SCUBA tanks may need to be purchased and maintained well in advance of the start of a project. Chain, line, spare parts and auxiliary equipment will need to be gathered and stored aboard. Working in the open ocean, backed up to the reef wall, and facing tradewinds require numerous anchors, chain and line. Mechanical breakdowns need to be dealt with quickly when the season is fixed and the clock is ticking. If the parts are not onboard, then one must know where to find and ship them quickly. Archaeological sites often entice visitors to come and look. With a marine project this requires moving people with small boats and keeping an extra eye on the people who are not familiar with waterborne activities. The goal of this talk is to leave the audience with the understanding that the project coordinator must work closely with the research vessels operators to make the marine archaeology run smoothly.

S.S. Maui: A Preliminary Study for the University of Hawaiis Summer Maritime Archaeology Techniques Course
Michelle Koontz Certificate Candidate, Maritime Archaeology and History Program University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii koontz[at]hawaii.edu

This is a report on the preliminary research for the S.S. Maui done originally for a possible project for the Maritime Archaeology Techniques course through the University of Hawaiis Summer Session (Outreach College). Although it was planned but not completed in 1998, it is still a significant site for a possible future project. The site was discovered off the west coast of the island of Hawaii during the 1997 field school being held a few miles down the coast. The location of the site matches with the historical records of where the ship went aground on March 19, 1917. If the wreck is indeed the S.S. Maui, it is expected to find evidence of a three-cylinder triple expansion engine, and a forced draft designed boiler, as well as other materials matching specifications known in the historical record. The ship is a valuable piece of not only steamship history, but also Hawaiian sugar industry history.

Whaling and the Expansion of the University of Hawaii Maritime Archaeology and History Program into the Pacific
Suzanne S. Finney Graduate Student, Department of Anthropology Certificate Candidate, Maritime Archaeology and History Program University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii sfinney[at]hawaii.edu

Whaling was an important industry in Hawaii during the 19th century. Hundreds of ships anchored at Honolulu and Lahaina for rest, provisioning and repair. One of the long term goals for the UH Maritime Archaeology and History Program is the expansion of the program into the Pacific region beyond the islands of Hawaii. Whaling was an important industry throughout the Pacific and this topic lends itself to the expansion of our research and projects. This paper deals specifically with Pohnpei, one of the islands in the Federated States of Micronesia. Pohnpei saw many American whalers, especially in the middle of the 19th century. This area has great potential for the retrieval of cultural materials from shipwrecks and ships anchoring within the southern harbors of Pohnpei. These harbors are no longer in use and could provide a wealth of material for further work concerning whaling and the Pacific.

The Wreck of the Whaleship Tamerlane
Richard Rogers Pilialoha Consultants Haleiwa, Hawaii plialoha[at]hula.net

The final chapter in Hawaiis involvement in the whaling trade might well be marked as being closed on the pitch black night of February 1, 1892. In that pre-dawn darkness the second mate of an aged whaleship heard the sound of breakers ahead, too late to have the helmsmen turn the wheel in order to keep them off the jagged rocks of the Puna Coast on the island of Hawaii. The hasty decision to take to the boats claimed the lives of most of the officers and nearly half of the crew. Those who walked the planks to safety of a barren shore faced a long walk over rough ground. How did such an experienced vessel find herself destroyed on a known coastline? Where exactly did she meet her end? What fate awaited the survivors of one of the last of New Bedfords whaleships? Why did half of the crew lose their lives? What was the legacy of that shipwreck? Could her remains await the modern archaeologist? Might she have already been found and plundered for her iron pots and swivel guns, or are her remains entombed in lava forever? Officers statements, newspaper accounts, old maps and old-fashioned detective work might give us some answers. Only our imagination can give us others.

Sailing the Seas of Information: Whaling Logs and Other Treasures
Karen M. Peacock Curator, Pacific Collection Hamilton Library University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii peacock[at]hawaii.edu

Navigating a course for ones research is rough going these days, as the information explosion overwhelms us all. From websites to archives, where to start, what paths to take? In this paper I will discuss sources on the history of whaling in the Pacific. Topics to be covered include a general survey of the literature, bibliographies, periodical indices, databases, archival finding aids, websites and special resources. One resource to be discussed is the New England Whaling Logs collection - fortunately for those of us who require the wealth that lies hidden in logbooks - the Pacific Manuscripts Bureau microfilmed logs of New England whaling ships that traveled Pacific waters. Indices provide access by name of ship, captain, or island visited. Hopefully this talk will offer a useful chart to many such resources.

Whither Thou Goest I Will Go; Whaling Captains Wives, Nineteenth Century Ruths
Jean Neuer Graduate Student, Department of History University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii jneuer[at]flex.com

After 1820, it took longer to obtain a full cargo of whale oil and the voyages stretched out to four, five and, in some cases, even seven years in length. These extended voyages led some wives to join their husbands at sea. In the 100 years between 1820 and 1920, over 400 wives of whaling captains traveled on board their husbands vessels. This was a courageous act on their part, as the early 19th century dictated that a womans place was at home, quietly supporting her husband. This daring break with custom met with mixed reactions. Many of the ships owners and the shipping agents were fearful that the presence of women onboard ship would get in the way of the ships goal -- to bag as many whales as they could, in as short a period as possible, and get them back to home port. Many captains and crew members feared the presence of women would mean an end to the practice of open sex when they made landfall. Then, too, crews were large, and day-to-day operations of the vessel put space at a premium. Here are accounts of two of many courageous women who sailed with their husbands. Not all ships owners objected to the presence of a womans softening touch, the owners of the Ionia demanded that Charity Randall Norton travel with her husband Captain John Oliver Norton. He was temperamental and the owners wanted Charitys calming presence to keep him in check. Another woman who was adored by the crew was Eliza Williams, the daughter of a physician. The skills that she learned from her father stood her in good stead on more than one occasion.

Babeldaob Island: The Bypassed Base, 1944-1945
David M. Grant Archaeologist/Aviation Resources Specialist Underwater Archaeology Branch Naval Historical Center Washington, D.C. DGrant[at]nhc.navy.mil

The landscape of Babeldaob Island, the largest island in the Palau Archipelago, tells the story of a population of 42,000 people literally driven underground. There is abundant archaeological evidence of a desperate lifestyle forced on a destitute Japanese garrison and the native Palauan population by daily and nightly aerial attack by Marine Corps fighter/bombers flying from Peleliu. This evidence exists side by side with military works completed earlier to defend against an American invasion that never came. Numerous Japanese bases were bypassed by the island-hopping Allied advance across the Pacific. Rather than being ignored and left to wither on the vine, these garrisons were subjected to repeated air attack. These operations kept the Japanese neutralized and provided training for American pilots destined for front line duty elsewhere. Action in these rear areas rarely received attention during the war and has been largely overlooked by history, but, in combination with strict blockades, they took a heavy toll on the enemy. In turn, these destitute garrisons often took a heavy toll on native populations. The pristine evidence remaining on Babeldaob can help tell the story of relatively unknown events on remote islands throughout the Pacific theater of war.

The Attack on Pearl Harbor and Birth of the Rescue Helicopter
B. Thomas Beard Maritime Historian (Unaffiliated) Port Angeles, Washington tbeard[at]olympus.net

The rescue helicopter accounts for the saving of millions of lives worldwide. This wondrous vehicle, now an icon to rescue, began as an idea during the carnage at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. U.S. Coast Guard Lieutenant, Frank A. Erickson, was an observer and describes the infamous attack from his post in the airplane control tower at Ford Island. From his aerie at the epicenter of attack, Erickson had a grand view of the battle. Beneath him lay all of Ford Island surrounded by the ships of the Pacific Fleet. Erickson witnessed the entire attack as it unfolded on the island of Oahu and recalled it vividly for years, but was helpless at the time to save any of the hundreds of sailors struggling in the flaming and oily waters. An idea for a revolutionary flying device to help save people from the water, the yet developed helicopter adapted to rescue came to him while he was in the tower watching. His image of the horrors of battle and his helplessness to offer any aid then to hapless victims drove him, working with Igor Sikorsky, to create a working rescue helicopter and establish the fundamentals for all helicopters to follow. Out of this development for a rescue helicopter came the all-purpose helicopter today so successful in commercial and military missions. His single-minded dedication cost Erickson his Coast Guard career, yet the lives saved by his devotion to an idea spurred on by a horrendous image are countless. My paper detailing this poignant episode surrounding the birth of the rescue helicopter is composed from research for the epilog in my book, Wonderful Flying Machines: The History of U.S. Coast Guard Helicopters, Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Dateline Saipan: A Marine Remembers
Kathleen B. Williams Assistant Professor, Bronx Community College Bronxville, New York KBBWilliam[at]aol.com

Based on several first hand accounts, medical records, muster rolls, and unit histories, this paper examines the wartime career of Marine Pfc. William A. Crane from enlistment in Texas on his eighteenth birthday in December 1942, until 8 July 1944 when he caught a Japanese bullet during a campaign for Saipan, Mariana Islands. Climaxing with the action of that final day, the paper illuminates World War II combat experience in one of the toughest campaigns in the Pacific. After initial training at Camp Pendleton, California with the newly constituted Fourth Marine Division, Crane was wounded in his very first skirmish on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, in January 1944. Recovering on Maui, Crane was reassigned as scout to Major. Roger Broome, commander of the Regimental Weapons Company, 24th Marines. Landing on Saipan on 15 June, Crane fought through the first three grueling weeks of the campaign never far from the side of Major Broome. Finally, on 8 July, they and the companys executive officer were caught in a fire-fight while dislodging Japanese soldiers hidden in caves. Both the captain and the major were severely wounded and Crane himself was hit trying to rescue them. He was evacuated immediately, and was eventually invalided back in America. For the next fifty-three years -- a 25-caliber bullet lodged in his skull to remind him -- Crane wondered what had happened to the men he left behind, often reliving that violent July day in nightmares. He never knew that both the major and the captain had died of their wounds, nor that they had been awarded, respectively, the Navy Cross and the Silver Star for their efforts on Saipan. Because those who could have spoken for him had died, Crane never received any recognition for his heroism in trying to save the officers. But today, when praised for this bravery, Crane simply replies That wasnt bravery. Hell, I was scared to death.

Forging a Fragile Sword: Organization and Tactics in the Imperial Japanese Naval Air Arm Prior to World War II (this presentation was cancelled)
Paul E. Fontenoy Curator of Maritime Research, North Carolina Maritime Museum Beaufort, North Carolina fontenoy[at]clis.com

By December 1941 the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) had developed the worlds finest naval air arm. It had first-rate equipment, highly proficient aircrews, and a very effective tactical doctrine. In combat, however, this force proved fragile, incapable of maintaining the long-term superiority over the U.S. Navy. The central elements shaped this air arm; naval aviations role within the IJNs overall strategy, the impact of naval arms limitations treaties, and combat experience over China. Navy strategists regarded aviation as a long ranged extension of the fleets auxiliary forces in the attrition phase preceding the final confrontations between the Japanese and American battlefleets. The restrictions of the London Treaty of 1930 led enthusiasts to evolve a more prominent role for aviation to compensate for limitations in the size and numbers of other auxiliary combatants. Four years of combat over China led to the development of tactical doctrine emphasizing coordination of large numbers of aircraft operating from multiple bases, while simultaneously giving large numbers of aircrew invaluable operational experience. These elements combined to produce the very proficient force that ran amok for the first six months of the Pacific War. The air arms organization was its Achilles heel. Uniquely, embarked air units formed an integral part of their parent carriers complement. It was essentially impossible to transfer units between carriers or to develop replacement air groups. The navys emphasis on aircrew quality, allied with this organizational rigidity, militated against rapidly training replacements for combat losses. Inter-service rivalry exacerbated the shortcomings of Japans aviation industrial base. In consequence, confronted with the more flexible American system, the Japanese naval air arm shattered.

A Discussion on Japanese World War II Military Sites and Fortifications at Laulau Bay, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands for Possible Inclusion in a Multiple Site Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
Tara E. Moorman Graduate Student, Department of Anthropology University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii moorman[at]poi.net

The author presents a historical context in which to place Japanese military sites documented at Laulau Bay, Saipan, CNMI. The focus of the history is kept on the Japanese period in the Pacific. Particular attention is paid to the war in the Pacific with the central Pacific as the main focal point. Following a discussion of the battles leading up to Saipan, that battle is discussed in depth. The general coastal defense of the Japanese and strategic theories suggested by the sites at Laulau Bay are presented. Recommendations for historic preservation and an appendix with complete site details conclude this paper.

30 Preservation of World War II Historic Resources on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands
Nancy Farrell Cultural Resources Management Services Paso Robles, California nancy[at]crms.com

Guadalcanal remains one of the most evocative names in the history of the Second World War. It was the site of the pivotal land campaign of the Pacific theater. Following their defeat on Guadalcanal, the Japanese remained on the strategic defensive for the remainder of the war. A colossal air, ground and sea campaign was fought for the island, which later became a launching point for battles in the western provinces of the Solomon Islands. Although over fifty years have passed since the war ended, reminders of this extensive engagement between Japan and the United States are readily apparent on Guadalcanal and throughout the Solomon Islands. Today the fate of much of this material legacy or war is at a crossroads: will any of the key battlefields, aircraft remains and numerous shipwrecks be protected or lost forever? These historic resources are increasingly under threat from demands for housing, natural resource exploitation and vandalism. Following a successful and well-attended commemoration ceremony of the fiftieth anniversary of the campaign hosted by the government of the Solomon Islands in August 1992, interest in and concern for the remaining WWII resources on Guadalcanal increased dramatically. In 1996 friends of historic preservation in the Solomon Islands formed a non-profit foundation. The goals of the Battle of Guadalcanal and the Solomon Islands Foundation are to assist the government of the Solomon Islands in the preservation and management of WWII related cultural resources. The first step, pending funding, will be a comprehensive resource inventory and mapping of selected areas, followed by preparation of a preliminary Historic Preservation Plan. The ultimate goal of this program is to assist in developing a realistic, sustainable, cultural tourism base that will provide a gateway to other tourist activities in the Solomon Islands. This paper and slide presentation will provide a general introduction to the setting, a review of preservation efforts to date, an overview of some of the key resources as they appear today, and a discussion of the potential benefits and problems of the program.

Bombing Babo: A Triple Tragedy
P.J. Capelotti Lecturer in Anthropology and American Studies Penn State University/Abington College Abington, Pennsylvania StarRaft1[at]aol.com

When the Japanese swept across the southwest Pacific in 1941 and early 1942, they established bases along the length of northern and western New Guinea, (now Irian Jaya, Indonesia), digging in for what they knew would be the inevitable Allied counterattack. One of these bases, the low-lying tropical jungle outpost of Babo, was repeatedly hammered by Allied medium and heavy bombardment in 1944. In recent years, Babo became a favored place for groups seeking to salvage the many Japanese fighters and medium bombers wrecked or abandoned there. Yet these salvage entities were interested only in the finest surviving examples of aircraft, and left behind the landscape evidence of the base and its bombardment, including swampy impact craters containing remnants of aircraft and partial airframes either inaccessible to the salvagers or of little re-sale or restoration value. What remains at Babo is an interesting component of the titanic unwritten catalog of human warfare in the Pacific. These historical and salvage components, along with the clearly archaeological remnants that survive today, combine to make this small airfield triply instructive in developing method, methodology, and theory of aviation archaeology.

Aviation Archaeology: A View from Micronesia
Clark R. Graham President, Society for Historic Investigation and Preservation (SHIP) Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia cgraham[at]mail.fm and Bronson N. Etse Member, Society for Historic Investigation and Preservation Graduate, Xavier High School Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia Undergraduate, University of Hawaii Manoa Honolulu, Hawaii

Chuuk State (previously known as Truk) in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Belau are storehouses of history. Sites, features, ships, aircraft and artifacts from World War II are common sights throughout the islands. Here were fought some of the most important land, naval and air battles of the Pacific War. During the war, Chuuk State had six operational airfields and hundreds of aircraft. From the end of the war until rather recently, these aircraft were protected through benign neglect and their extreme isolation. Today, however, preservation of these important pieces of aviation history (airfields, buildings, actual aircraft and related artifacts) is becoming increasingly complex. As sites become more easily accessible to visitors, and with increased demands to subsist in a poor economic environment, preserving these aircraft is becoming increasingly difficult. Both Micronesians and visitors to their islands are having an adverse effect on these historic sites and the unique and rare aircraft both submerged and on land. This paper will take a look at general concepts of aviation archaeology, show how they may be applied to Chuuk, examine the unique problems of preserving aircraft in Chuuk State, and present the results of SHIP/Xavier High School-Submerged Cultural Resource Teams 1997 maritime archaeology survey of a Nakajima B6N Jill aircraft.

Navy Aircraft as Artifacts
David M. Grant, presenter DGrant[at]nhc.navy.mil Robert S. Neyland, author Underwater Archaeologist, Underwater Archaeology Branch Naval Historical Center Washington Navy Yard 901 M. Street SE Washington, D.C. 20374-5060

This paper discusses six years of the Naval Historical Centers (NHC) efforts to manage Navy aircraft wrecks by applying federal preservation laws and principles of archaeology. Naval aircraft, particularly those from World War II knows as warbirds are the subject of intense interest from salvagers, collectors, and aviation museums. Only in recent years have archaeologists begun to take a look at these as objects for analysis and to consider the complicated issues of their preservation. NHC has attempted in the last few years to encourage the preservation and curation of aircraft as artifacts of naval history and as potential sites for archaeological research. This paper looks at legal, ethical, and research issues involved in this work and outlines the development of U.S. Navy policy towards these threatened resources.

All Our Yesterdays: An Overview of Aviation Archaeology in Alaska
Colleen Mondor Graduate Student, Northern Studies Program University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks, Alaska rosadiuk[at]alaska.net

Aviation history in Alaska began with exploration and economics. The early pilots came here hoping not only to conquer the Arctic but also to win lucrative U.S. mail contracts. They flew in an unmapped unpredictable terrain until the Second World War brought the Territory to the attention of the federal government. The Lend Lease program with Russia followed by the Japanese invasion of the Aleutian Islands brought massive upgrades in every aspect of the aviation environment. Airfields and radar systems were constructed for some of the countrys most advanced aircraft. The overwhelming percentage of the states airports remained gravel, however, with limited weather reporting and instrumentation even today. Archaeologists researching aviation in Alaska must consider both its military and civilian heritage. Interest in crash sites is primarily limited to federal accident investigations, however, and the salvage operations of those seeking war memorabilia. Currently, commuter pilots are critical to the economy and provide vital transportation to tens of thousands of rural residents. Today, aircraft, and the pilots who fly them, serve as a source of economic interest more than anything else. The highest percentage of professional civilian accidents in Alaska continues to be assessed as pilot error related. A study of the areas history reveals, however, that other factors may be at work. Exploring the causes of pilot error reveals that the development of aviation in Alaska often required the pilots to make difficult decisions, a problem that continues today. Few lessons have been learned here and most of the history lies lost in the exaggerated heroic stories. The mistakes of the past continue to be repeated as the aviation community struggles to decide just what a wreck site can reveal. Answers are not easily forthcoming, but the possibility of preventing future accidents make such research critical.

Systems Modeling of the Technological Performance Parameters of a Rigid Airship
Paul Lagasse Independent Scholar Silver Spring, Maryland plagasse[at]patriot.net

From 1930 to 1935, the United States Navy considered using large rigid airships as strategic scouts in the western Pacific. The Navy acquired two airships, the USS Akron and the USS Macon, specifically to test this concept. Their successful employment as strategic scouts might have had a significant impact on inter-war naval strategy; however, neither airship was extensively operated in this role before being lost at sea. Thus, their ability to perform effective strategic scouting activities remains untested. The Airship Project is a multidisciplinary research program that uses systems modeling to identify and explore, through the use of mathematical simulation, the performance parameters of a rigid airship operating as a strategic scout in the western Pacific. The projects goal is to develop a body of data from which historians can develop a more complete and accurate assessment of the significance of rigid airships in naval history. The project will mathematically recreate airships based on the Akron and Macon design, using data obtained from blueprints, specifications, and flight test data. Simultaneously, contemporary doctrines of naval airship operation and strategic scouting will be studied. Following similar archaeological computer modeling research such as that performed by Irwin, Buckler, and Quirke in their 1990 study of Polynesian migration, the project will then operate the model airships in a larger system representing the western Pacific under a variety of climatic and military conditions. The operational experience thus gained will serve to isolate factors that would have significantly affected operational practice, and will invite revised analysis of the potential impact of rigid airships on naval strategic reconnaissance doctrine in the 1930s. The presentation will outline the elements of The Airship Project and will also discuss some of the ways that systems modeling of artifacts and environments may be useful to aviation archaeology.

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10th Annual Symposium, February 17-19, 1998
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Ancient Hawaiian Fishponds: History and Archaeology 
Joseph M. Farber Author, Ancient Hawaiian Fishponds: Can Restoration Succeed on Moloka'i ?

Practically every culture has practiced aquaculture to some degree. However, the ancient Hawaiians and their extensive system of fishponds are cited as one of the premier examples of successful fish farming in the world. Hawai'i is the only known place in Oceania where the people practiced a true form of pond aquaculture, that is, the Hawaiians progressed from the practice of merely catching fish to rearing them.

The ancient Hawaiian aquaculture systems included man-made and natural enclosures of water, called loko, or fishpond, used for the cultivation of a variety of edible fish and seaweed. Prior to western contact, it is estimated that there were 340 to 360 fishponds state-wide with an estimated annual yield of 1,991,520 lb./yr.

These ponds were part of a large, integrated and complex Hawaiian subsistence and barter economy that included agriculture and animal rearing. Integral to this comprehensive farming system was the traditional land system, ahupua' a, which divided the islands into self -sufficient wedge-shaped units that extended from the mountains to the sea.

There are two general types of fishponds, saltwater and freshwater, with six main styles. The salinity of the water served as an important element determining type of construction as well as what types of fish could be raised and their level of productivity .

Freshwater ponds (loko wai, loko i 'a kalo, kaheka and hapunapuna) were generally quite small in size (well under an acre) and had relatively small yields. Brackish water fishponds ( loko pu 'uone, loko ume 'iki, loko kuapa ) were quite large, many well over thirty acres in size, and required a great deal of labor to construct and maintain. These were the most productive fishponds as the nutrient-rich combination of freshwater and saltwater in conjunction with sunlight to penetrate their shallow depths produced estuary-like conditions optimal for the cultivation of algae. Due to the desirable characteristics of the brackish water fishpond, the Hawaiians generally constructed fishponds on or near the shoreline next to the mouth of a stream, near freshwater springs or in the sea.

Maritime Archaeology Techniques Course: 1997 Field Season
Hans Van Tilburg Ph.D. Candidate, Department of History Maritime Archaeology Instructor, Marine Option Program University of Hawai'i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

Highlights of the 1997 field course on the Kona coast will be reviewed. Ten students and staff, after a week of classroom preparation and diving safety check-outs on O'ahu, worked for one month on the Kona coast of the island of Hawai’i. Three sites were investigated: 1) the old sugar port and inter-island steamer wreckage at Mahukona, 2) Hawaiian fishing sampan debris at the Kona Coast State Park, and 3) Kealakekua Bay. At Mahukona the team collected video, still photographs, and measured drawings in order to complete an earlier, unfinished report (by field course participants in 1993). The sampan wreckage, apparently the remains of a local fishing vessel converted by the Navy to anti-submarine duty during World War ll, was documented for the first time. And, at Kealakekua Bay, thanks to the assistance of Mike Tuttle and Panamerican Maritime, Inc., the students participated in a magnetometer survey of much of the inner bay. In addition to this field work, historical documentation and other pertinent materials were assembled.

At the end of the field course, the students presented their findings at a public symposium. The variety of working environments and access to the remote-sensing gear made this year's field course an incredible learning experience, as well as a joy to teach. Work on compiling the results into finished form is now underway.

A Petroglyph Chronicle of Hawaiian Maritime History
P .F .Kwiatkowski Petroglyphologist Kamuela, Hawai'i

This slide presentation surveys petroglyphs that document various aspects of Hawaiian maritime history , from ancient times to the era just after the arrival of Captain Cook and western influences and trade. Many of the petroglyphs found in Hawai'i document, both virtually or by inference, the visits to Hawai'i by different people. Coupled with oral history and research the petroglyph evidence is at times astounding in its record keeping. The petroglyph evidence points out that Captain Cook was not the first non-Polynesian to reach Hawai'i and also leads to some interesting speculation about where the attack on the Fair American actually took place.

The Steamer Maui: Early 2Oth Century Maritime Hawai'i
Pete Hendricks Marine Resource Specialist, Division of Aquatic Resources Kamuela, Hawai' i

As the keel was being laid in San Francisco for the steam schooner Maui, the Hawaiian senate was ratifying the treaty with the United States to annex Hawai 'i. Twenty years later, just after the loss of the Maui on the reef at Mahai'ula Bay on Hawai'i island, the United States, including Hawai'i, entered World War I. During the early 20th century everything moved by water. Hawai'i ocean transportation, commerce, and logistics of the period will be discussed, with emphasis on the Maui, a state-of-the-art cargo and passenger vessel of her time. The Maui will be one of the field sites for the University of Hawai’i at Manoa summer 1998 Maritime Archaeology Techniques Course (OEST/ANTH 668).

The Contemporary Fishpond Restoration Movement in Hawai'i: Problems and Potential
Joseph M. Farber Author, Ancient Hawaiian Fishponds: Can Restoration Succeed on Moloka’i ?

Although it is estimated that at their zenith the fishponds numbered nearly 360 with an estimated yield of 1,991,520 lb./yr., today only a handful of fishponds are in active use. However, many of the abandoned fishponds remain in good shape and are capable of being revitalized. Such restored fishponds could once again be a significant source of protein, play an important part of the State's aquaculture industry , and serve as a renewed source of cultural pride. . The south shore of Moloka 'i is blessed with the greatest number of relatively well-intact ancient Hawaiian fishponds in the State and with residents who are perhaps the strongest advocates of fishpond preservation and restoration. The community envisions these ponds will be restored and managed by and for themselves primarily for subsistence use.

Unfortunately, community wishes to restore the ponds are running head-on against a plethora of costly and time-consuming environmental laws and regulations to protect Hawai'i's marine and coastal environment. At the moment the restoration of coastal fishponds entails no fewer than six major federal, state, and county permits at a cost of as much as $150,000 per site. While these laws intend to balance the competing interests of protecting marine and coastal environments against their over-development and degradation, the laws also pose the latest, and many feel the greatest, impediment to attempts to restore the ancient Hawaiian fishponds.

Because the environmental impacts from the restoration of fishponds are not fully known, regulators have taken a very cautious approach to granting the needed permits. Numerous preconditions are being mandated by the regulatory agencies before they grant their permits.

In the spring of 1997, after over two years working through the permit process, Honouliwai fishpond on Moloka 'i received conditional approval to begin restoration activities. This state-sponsored demonstration project is a working model in developing restoration techniques as well as determining if restoration activities do indeed require such a cautious approach to permit i approval and compliance.

The "Coat of Arms" Petroglyph at Ke'ei, Hawai'i
Captain Richard W. Rogers Pilialoha Consultants Hale'iwa, Hawai'i

For many generations, the people that live in the village of Ke'ei, South Kona have referred to a peculiar petroglyph that sits on the pahoehoe lava next to their canoe landing as "The Coat of Arms". This complex rock carving has no neighbor closer that an image of a solitary woman one mile away and a konane game board down the rocky coastline.

The five-part image in question is cut into the rocky surface in such a manner that it must have been done so with metal tools. Some experts have stated that it is not even Hawaiian. Researchers now wonder if the carving might not have something to do with an ancient shipwreck that Hawaiian tradition speaks of in the immediate vicinity .

The burials of ancient kings, the death of Captain Cook, visits by early fur traders, and rumors of buried pirate treasure are among the many events that have occurred in and around this Kealakekua Bay site over the years. This paper will look into plausible interpretations of this most peculiar petroglyph cluster.

A Brief History of the Effects of Land Use on Kine'ohe Bay...Marion Kelly Associate Professor, Ethnic Studies Department University of Hawai’i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

Early Ko 'olaupoko history is deeply intertwined with legends about Hawaiian gods and demi-gods. The Kanaka Maoli (Hawaiians) who lived on the land ( 'aina) in Hawaiian times were responsible for taking care of the land (malama 'aina) and the sea (malama kai) and all the resources on the land and in the sea. In this way the resources would be preserved and the gods would be pleased. If the land and the sea were not properly cared for, the goods would become angry and cause a drought, or some kind of infestation that would destroy the crops. Cultivators were therefore very careful to preserve their environment. Changes came slowly.

In the last 100 years, however, changes have been relatively rapid, and they were not decided by cultivators, but primarily by investors who were concerned with profits. The major changes began with the disappearance of fishponds (loko i 'a) and taro (kaIo) gardens (1o 'i) where Hawaiian cultivated their food. The changes that have come and gone are sugar cane plantations, rice plantations, pineapple plantations, banana plantations, and cattle ranches. The most recent change that has been developing rapidly over the last 50-60 years is urbanization. The result has been that Kane'ohe Bay has suffered greatly and may never fully recover despite the efforts of many scientists over the last 20 years, or so.

Maritime Asia-Pacific: The Hawaiian Sampan
Hans Van Tilburg Ph.D. Candidate, Department of History Maritime Archaeology Instructor, Marine Option Program University of Hawai’i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

The story of the Hawaiian fishing sampan represents the blending of two cultures. The first Japanese-style fishing boat was brought to the Hawaiian islands by Mr. Gorokichi Nakasugi in 1899 on board a steamer. Initially, fishing sampans featured traditional square sails, but these were eventually abandoned for fore-and-aft rigs. By 1907, vessels were designed to accommodate diesel engines, and, by the 1920's, the prominent wheelhouse and flying bridge made its appearance. Throughout these local modifications, the overall design proved perfectly suited for the pursuit of aku, , ahi, and akule in Hawaiian waters. The fishing fleet at Kewalo Basin became a colorful feature of Hawai’i's own history. During World War II many of these, by then, famous boats were acquired by the U.S. Navy.

Today there are only a handful of pre-war fishing sampans left. Rather than the story of a particular design lost to history, though, features of the original local fishing sampans reappear in fiberglass and steel designs. Or do they?

Harold Marsh Sewall: A New Englander in Truculent Pursuit of Empire, Samoa,1887-1890
Paul T. Burlin, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Humanities University of New England Biddeford, Maine

In early February of 1889, Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard dismissed the consul general to Samoa, Harold Marsh Sewall. The dismissal climaxed over a year of conflict between the consular representative and the State Department. While Sewall' s tenure in Samoa has been discussed in general historical accounts, neither the consul general himself nor his policy dispute with the State Department has been the primary focus of scholarly work. Both are worthy of attention for a number of reasons.

First, they serve to shed additional light on some of the crosscurrents of belief which helped shape the American empire in the Pacific during the late nineteenth century .Second, they bring to light yet another example of the important role New Englanders played in that part of the world. In particular, Harold Sewall was a member of the famous shipbuilding family of Bath, Maine. At the very time that he was engaged in Samoa, his family's shipbuilding and operating firm was migrating heavily to the Hawaiian sugar trade. Although Harold Sewall was fired by Bayard, he was subsequently reappointed as consul general to Samoa by President Benjamin Harrison and Secretary of State James G. Blaine and was eventually appointed as the last Minister to Hawai'i by U.S. President William McKinley.

Harold Sewall' s entire diplomatic career in the Pacific, including his time in Hawai'i, provide a context for his first tour of duty in Samoa. His dispute with Bayard was a result of tactical disagreements, divisive generational issues, and another instance of the long tradition of Americans on the diplomatic front lines attempting to influence and redirect American foreign policy as conceptualized and implemented from Washington.

The Mystery of the Harvest: One Episode from the U .S. Civil War in the Pacific
Suzanne S. Finney M.A. Candidate, Department of Anthropology University of Hawai’i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

The most notable whaling ship capture of the C.S.S. Shenandoah took place on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia in Apri11865. Four ships were captured and bummed: the Edward Carey, the Hector, and the Pearl, all from New England, and the Harvest, originally from New England but later sold to Hawai'i. While the Shenandoah was justified to burn the three Union whaling ships, questions remain even today about the Hawai'i-based brig Harvest. Several eyewitness accounts of the capture and subsequent looting and bumming of the Harvest contain a few serious discrepancies. However, the inconsistencies fit together in the framework of four questions. The first involves the actual flag that the Harvest flew. The second involves the exact chronology of the bumming. The third involves the cargo of the Harvest. The fourth involves the eyewitness accounts themselves. There are varying accounts of which flag was flying, when the ships were burned, where they were bummed, and the actual looting that took place before they were burned. There is some interest in pursuing underwater archaeology in the harbor where the ships sank as a research project for the University of Hawai'i's Maritime Archaeology Techniques course. The use of underwater archaeology techniques to investigate this mystery reaffirms the usefulness of this subdiscipline of archaeology to resolve situations such as this. Moreover, there is only one whaling ship from this era left today, the Charles W Morgan in Mystic Seaport, Connecticut (which also sailed in the Pacific and stopped in Micronesia). Anything that could be learned from these wrecks would be a valuable addition to the literature and would help us better understand the evolution of whaling in America.

Captain Ahab, a Real American Hero
Barbara H. Keating Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology University of Hawai’i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

Few people realize that the character Captain Ahab in Herman Melville's book Moby Dick was fashioned after the U.S. Naval Officer Admiral Charles Wilkes. Wilkes was an American hero for leading the first squadron of American ships on an expedition which charted the oceans of the world (1838-1842), discovering the continent of Antarctica, and leapfrogging America into a position of scientific leadership. Years later, during the Civil War, he kidnapped Confederate commissioners from a British mail ship and prevented the Confederacy from involving Britain and France in the War Between the States. Captain Wilkes was a strict disciplinarian like the British Captain Bligh of Mutiny on the Bounty fame. Despite retiring as a Rear Admiral, Wilkes was court-martialed and reprimanded repeatedly during his career, usually in his hour of triumph.

Wilkes and Melville families lived in the same neighborhood. Both families had relatives in Albany, the home of the Gansvoorts (relatives of both families) and Wilkes' sister. The families moved in the same social circles. Melville's cousin, Henry Gansvoort, was a member of the Wilkes expedition and could contribute much to the family gossip. Another Melville cousin, Guert Gansvoort, served as a U.S. Naval Officer throughout the same period as Wilkes. Thus a number of family connections linked the men. Melville bought (1847) the six-volume set of Wilkes' Narrative published in 1845. In it he found convenient descriptions of the South Seas, whales, and islanders which he used in his books. Melville's book was in a draft form (1850) when he met with the author Nathaniel Hawthorne. Encouraged by their meeting to discuss the metaphysical world, Melville rewrote his adventure novel to incorporate the drama of Wilkes ' South Sea expedition.

Herman Melville gave Ahab the physical traits and personality of Wilkes right down to the scar on his cheek. He gave Ahab the same familial history as Wilkes and phenomenal knowledge of ocean currents and locations of whale feeding grounds. Ahab, like Wilkes, was a lonely man, the fate of being a commanding officer, that demanded respect from their men and took revenge (by flogging) when respect was not shown.

Jaffe (1976) argued convincingly that Wilkes was Melville's model for Captain Ahab. One of the most convincing lines of evidence was an instance in which Melville refers to Captain Ahab as the Admiral and mentions his flagship. Melville relied heavily on Wilkes' accounts of people, places, events, natural phenomena, characters, emotion, perceptions, and even used the ship' s track. The Pequod like Wilkes' squadron circumnavigated the world in four years. Melville used the name "Moby Dick" taken from an article by Reynolds (1839) entitled "Mocha-Dick; or white whale of the Pacific".

Basalt Artifacts in Hawai'i's Marine Context 
Albert Lovington Certificate Candidate, Graduate Maritime Archaeology and History Certificate Program University of Hawai’i at Manoa

The project for the University of Hawai’i Maritime Archaeology Field School, MAST '96, was to chart the occurrence of Hawaiian lithic fishing artifacts in a traditional Hawaiian ko 'a (nearshore fishing grounds). The field school findings exposed many of the significant issues related to underwater surveys regarding research designs, analyses of lithic artifacts, and site formation processes.

The research design of the field school contrasted the data acquired from the grid survey with that of the swim-line surveys of nearby areas, as well as, the implementation and usefulness of each. In addition to research hypotheses and open-ended surveys in any research design, other lithic site surveys may address methodological issues of distribution (survey of elimination), sampling (data as site-specific ), and negative evidence. In contrast to non-intrusive swim-line surveys (open-ended) used to address the issue of distribution; so-called "destructive" methodologies such as an air-lift and "mailbox" may have rational applications on lithic surveys.

The field school accomplished non-destructive surveys of distribution; whereas retrieval and collection of artifacts permits an analysis of morphological features. Analyses of the artifacts can indicate the use of nets, baskets, octopus lures, and handlines, reflecting Hawaiian procurement strategies in the various ecological zones and revealing the relationship between topographic relief/ecological zonation and patterns of taxonomic distribution. The "fishing gear" artifacts are identifiable by their basalt composition and fall into two classes, worked and unworked. The worked class of artifacts include canoe anchors, plummet weights, handline weights, octopus lure weights, game stones, adzes, and poi pounders, while the unworked stones are various types of sinkers. Temporal relations may be deduced from analyses of the artifacts as to accretion rates, the material composition of the artifacts and the chronological seriation of functionally adaptive changes in the morphology .Sourcing selected lithic artifacts by either trace element fmgerprinting or isotope ratios can pinpoint their origin (respective of volcanic flow) to be used to support contact, trade, and migration theories. Corroborated with historiographic evidence, cultural uses can be determined for the various lithics utilized in Hawai'i: komana, pu 'uku 'ua, mil 'ili, polipoli, pupukea, kalapaiki, 'iole, kaua 'ula, and '0 'io. Maritime archaeology is affiliated with numerous fields that deal with some aspect of erosion and deposition in underwater environments in such areas as weather, water circulation, sand and sediment movement, accretion rates, coral and algal growth, volcanology , and glaciation. Site formation processes should account for occurrences of basalt in the site as to deposition from natural formational processes or human activity as well as describe those processes that could move, reveal, and/or conceal the artifacts after deposition. All possible site formation processes would have to be determined to avoid problems regarding analyses of unworked stones as artifacts of cultural use or as debris, the result of extrusion and erosion. This would include assessing the possibilities of basalt deposition due to human disturbance of old stream beds and ponds (landfill) and dredging combined with subsequent effects of erosion. Site formation processes are still a nebulous frontier within maritime archaeology that need more interdisciplinary studies which reflect the interaction of the various processes. Experiments running simulation models using colored basalt stones with magnetic markers within a grid survey area could chart sediment transport from littoral drift and offshore drift, study accretion rates on basalt stones, and study wearing accretion on the basalt due to transport.

Studies of lithics in the marine context will pioneer our understanding of site formational process, just as studies of the lithic record in the marine context will better our understanding of the lithic cultures of Polynesia.

Midway or the Solomon Islands Campaign: Which Was the Turning Point of the Pacific War? 
Todd Aoki M.A. Candidate, Department of History University of Hawai’i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

Historians have long identified the Battle of Midway as the crucial turning point in the Pacific theater during World War n. This viewpoint may be mistaken. An analysis of Japanese fleet strength, relative strength vis-a-vis the U.S. Navy and Japanese Combined Fleet, and Japanese strategies before and after the Battle of Midway points to a later change in the momentum of the war. The turning point takes place several months later during the Solomon Islands campaign (the battles around Guadalcanal Island) rather than at the Battle of Midway.

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9th Annual Symposium, February 17-19, 1997
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Graduate Maritime Archaeology and History Certificate Program
Sherwood Maynard Director, Marine Option Program School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawai'i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

The field of maritime archaeology and history is relatively undeveloped in the Pacific, yet a great potential exists to explore, document, preserve and interpret the rich heritage of ocean-related culture, history, anthropology, archaeology, science and technology. The University of Hawai'i is exceptionally well-located, staffed and equipped to conduct education, research and service for Pacific Ocean maritime archaeology and history of Polynesians and other Pacific Islanders as well as the maritime peoples of Asia--'with expertise spanning from coastal wetlands to the technologies required for deep water exploration. This Graduate Certificate is offered as a complement to classified graduate students pursuing advanced degrees or as a stand-alone credential. Cooperating faculty from several departments and programs in the UH system are supplemented by faculty and professionals from institutions throughout the Pacific and U.S. mainland. Completion of the certificate requires a minimum of20 credits, including OEST/ANTH 489 (3) and OEST/ANTH 668 (6) plus a seminar and electives from courses in the following areas: History and Social Science, Archaeology, Techniques, and Natural Sciences and Engineering.

Waikiki K'oa Fishing Site: Maritime Archaeology Surveying Techniques (MAST) Field School, 1996
Hans Van Tilburg Graduate Student, Department of History Instructor, UH Maritime Archaeology Field School Marine Option Program University of Hawai'i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i
Albert Lovington 1996 Maritime Archaeology Field School Participant Marine Option Program University of Hawai'i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

General results of the Marine Option Program's maritime archaeology field school will be presented. Students in the field school were exposed to a variety of learning situations, including classroom sessions, diving transects in several offshore sites and field trips around O'ahu. An archaeological survey of the distribution of traditional Hawaiian stone fishing artifacts in a near shore site located off of the natatorium in Waikiki was begun. Methodology for surveying shallow water sites will be discussed. Also presented will be the findings of the field school participants concerning the occurrence of basalt in offshore environments of Waikiki, as well as some of the

Civil War in the Pacific
William N. Still Adjunct Researcher School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology University of Hawai'i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

This presentation on the American Civil War in the Pacific will emphasize the impact of the war on the West Coast; Lincoln's concern about the California gold and efforts to protect it. Also discussed will be the impact of the war on Hawaii; activities of .the Confederate raider Shenandoah in the Pacific; and the aftermath of the war in the Pacific, especially, what happened to the ships.

The Significance of the Mariana Islands to the Manila Galleon Trade
William J. McCarthy Assistant Professor Department of History University of North Carolina Wilmington Wilmington, North Carolina

The first island in the Pacific visited by Spaniards was Guam. Magellan's expedition happened upon it in the course of the first Pacific crossing in 1521. The people of the island, it was observed, were canny traders, skillful swimmers and boatsmen, and, according to the Spanish perception, thieves. Spaniards then did not have much to do with the islands for a number of decades, but made some use of them in the eastbound voyages from Manila to Acapulco.  The route followed by the galleons took them from Cavite in Manila Bay to the south of Luzon and into the open waters of the Philippine Sea. They then proceeded to the northwest to a point north of the chain of the Marianas. It often happened, though, that the galleons left port during typhoon season. The typhoons were most often encountered in the Philippine Sea, but if the galleons could manage to navigate the channels between the islands of the Marianas, they could escape the typhoon conditions which most often dissipated in the vicinity of the longitude of the archipelago.   Attempts to pass between the islands during foul weather resulted in a number of shipwrecks in the archipelago. The effect for the Spanish Philippines was, of course, the loss of many lives and much cargo. For the islands- the situation brought castaways and increased attention from the Spaniards. Attempts were made periodically to salvage shipwreck sites, particularly for ordnance, and a Spanish settlement was made after 1668. The occasion for the first settlement was the foundation of a Jesuit mission, authorized by the King’s mother, Mariana of Austria. The mission was forced on the Chamorro with a great deal of violence, as they were not keen to accept the religion of the armed proselytizers. The islands were pacified by 1698, by which time the bulk of the indigenous populations had perished. The subsequent Spanish settlement was made use of as the westward galleons called at Guam en route to Manila to replenish water provisions. The Colony became a province of the Audiencia of Manila (and the viceroyalty of New Spain), and eventually was awarded its own governor. It served as arguably the most obscure Spanish colony, and became often a place of exile for Manila’s malcontents. The archipelago thus defined much about the Manila galleon trade, but did not benefit particularly from its strategic location.

The Increasing Evidence of European Discoveries of the Hawaiian Islands Prior to 1778
Richard W. Rogers, Pilialoha Consultant, Hale'iwa, Hawai'i; Stephen Gould Curator Hawai'i Maritime Center Honolulu, Hawai'i

At last year's symposium we spoke of the opinions of the early explorers on the subject of earlier discoveries (prior to 1778) of the Hawaiian Islands. This year we would like to briefly review the writings of a number of authors who had an opinion on this subject, and discuss the merits of those opinions. Some of them ascribed the discovery of these islands and their placement on the earlier maps to a variety of explorers, adventurers and pilots. Subsequent research has proven some of those possible discoveries to be plausible, implausible or fictitious. A review of the early charts will demonstrate a series of separate and distinct discoveries of islands in the North Pacific. We will discuss whether these are depictions of the Hawaiian Islands or some other landfall. Two letters written from Japan by the English pilot of a Dutch trading vessel speak of trading with natives at an island in fifteen degrees latitude and having some of the men desert there, late in the year 1600 We will read these portions of the letters and discuss a Hawaiian tradition that seems to speak of the same event.  There has been some archaeological evidence that has come to light recently. We will discuss the possibility of testing the cloth and knife that were discovered with the Ka' ai and explain the problems with that proposal. The skeleton of a young 16th century woman was recently excavated. In examining her remains, it was discovered that she had suffered from congenital venereal syphilis, a disease that was thought to have been brought to the islands in 1778. In conclusion, we will demonstrate how the most recent discoveries fit into the pattern of Hawaiian pre-history, and explain how this study is becoming valuable in establishing a timeline in ancient Hawaiian tradition.

The Role of the Department of the Navy in Submerged Cultural Resource Management
William S. Dudley Director Naval Historical Center Department of the Navy Washington, D.C.

The Navy has taken an active role in the protection of its historic underwater properties, namely shipwrecks and sunken aircraft. During the early 1990s, the Department of the Navy acted to bring its policies and regulations into line with the provisions of the National Historical Preservation Act of 1966. The Secretary of the Navy designated the Naval Historical Center as the agency to implement this legislation. With the assistance of the Department of Defense Legacy Management funding, the Center has established partnerships with several coastal/riverine states to identify, inventory and draft management plans for submerged naval wreck sites within their waters. States that have so far been included are Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Maryland, North Carolina, Florida, Texas and Washington. The information obtained has been incorporated into a global data base that will be used for the evaluation and protection of threatened sites. The Center works with the General Counsel of the Navy, the Judge Advocate General's Admiralty counsel, the National Park Service's Submerged Cultural Resources Unit, the Department of the Interior's Archaeological Assistance Office and the Department of Justice to enforce the federal government's ownership rights with regard to historic properties. The Navy has also cooperated with the governments of France, Germany and Great Britain to recognize and protect their sovereign immune vessels in the United States' waters and to obtain their reciprocal protection of U.S. naval vessels and aircraft in their waters. To effect this work, the Center has on staff an underwater - archaeologist and several assistants to work on data base, aircraft sites and conservation of underwater artifacts. The Center is energetically working to broaden its outreach to states, commonwealths and foreign countries with whom partnerships have not yet been established.

Fathoming Our Past: Management of Cultural Resources in NOAA's National Marine Sanctuaries
Bruce G. Terrell Archaeologist/Historian NOAA Sanctuaries and Reserves Division Silver Springs, Maryland

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) manages 12 National Marine Sanctuaries in U.S. coastal waters, including the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. As a federal agency managing public lands, NOAA is responsible for the stewardship of historic and cultural properties as well as natural resources. These properties include submerged prehistoric sites and historic shipwrecks. This paper describes the NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program's progress in developing a submerged cultural resources management program and its plans for the future. It will further discuss how NOAA attempts to accommodate certain political realities when sharing co-management responsibilities with state governments.

Pulling Together: The National Maritime Initiative and Partnerships for Maritime Preservation
Kevin J. Foster Chief, National Maritime Initiative National Park Service Washington, D.C.

The National Maritime Initiative (NMI) of the National Park Service works with various organizations to help preserve and interpret maritime heritage resources. The NMI maintains database inventories of ships, lighthouses and lifesaving stations, and is .working in partnerships to inventory boats and to document ship and aircraft wrecks. The NMI also assists the National Historic Landmark Survey in documenting the significance and integrity of maritime resources. The NMI works with the community to develop and distribute preservation standards such as The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Historic Vessel Preservation Projects for ships, and a similar standard for aircraft preservation. Perhaps the most ambitious such project is a lighthouse preservation manual prepared as part of a joint project with the U.S. Coast Guard, the National Conference for State Historic Preservation Officers, and the non-profit U.S. Lighthouse Society. Finally, the NMI provides technical and, starting this year, financial assistance for the maritime heritage field.

Remembering Pearl Harbor 
Joe Chernisky Professor, Religious Studies and Leadership Leeward Community College Pearl City, Hawai'i

The exhibit, Ku 'u Momi Makamae, My Precious Pearl, offers a different look at Pearl Harbor -not that of war and tragedy -but that of a natural, human, educational and cultural resource. The exhibit takes the visitor on a historical journey from the precontact days of Hawai'i to the military presence and modern day issues of the harbor.

Konaliloha, the Legend of a Shipwreck at Kealakekua Bay
Richard W. Rogers Pilialoha Consultant Hale'iwa, Hawaii

Hawaiian tradition tells us that during the reign of Keli'ikaloa there occurred an event which may have left remains for us to investigate in the future. The story is brought down to us by a number of Hawaiian authors including David Malo, Abraham Fornander, Jules Remy and William Ellis. Keli'ikaloa was the son of the warrior chief Umi and the grandson of Liloa. When he was residing in Kona, there was the shipwreck of a vessel which the Hawaiian people called Konaliloha. Only two people are known to have survived the shipwreck. One was a woman and the other, a male, was thought to have been her brother. The place that they came ashore was known to the local people as Kulou, or the kneeling place, because of the long time that the survivors remained prostrated there. The male was given the name of Kukanaloa and made a minor chief. The woman married a chief named Konikonia and later had a number of children. There are myths and chants that seem to speak of the shipwreck, its partial salvage and the later life of the woman that survived it. Keli ' ikaloa was an unpopular chief and he was killed at a relatively young age. His rank was such that he was entitled to internment in aka ' ai, or wicker basket, after death. Ka' ai # I holds the remains of a young male chief who was in bad health. Along with other grave goods was a piece of flaxen sail-cloth and a knife. It is very likely that these artifacts are from the shipwreck of the Konaliloha, and the bones inside are those of Keli' ikaloa.

European shipping records mention the unknown fate of eight Spanish, one Dutch and one English vessel that were last seen in the North Pacific. It appears that the shipwreck at Kealakekua is either the San Cristo de Burgos, or the San Francisco Xavier which have been missing since 1693 and 1705, respectively. These were both eastbound cargo ships, loaded with silk, porcelain, wax and other Asian goods. A look at the artifacts recovered from other eastbound Manila Galleons will be instructive in what to look for in Kona.

A survey of the plausible wreck site is scheduled for this July. There are a number of obstacles confronting the surveyors. The length of time since the initial shipwreck, the dynamic ocean conditions at the site, the fast growing staghorn coral which may cover the wreckage and the fact that there was an underwater eruption in the vicinity in 1877, combine to make this a most challenging search. Relatively high-tech tools such as the proton magnetometer, side-scan sonar and differential global positioning systems will need to be combined with simple range finding and SCUBA diving to determine if the remains of any parts of the vessel are recoverable. If remains of the vessel were to be recovered and identified as to the time period, the ramifications are that we would be able, for the first time, to use underwater archaeology to confirm the accuracy of Hawaiian tradition.

The 1838-1842 U.S. Exploring Expedition and the Lt. Charles Wilkes
Barbara H. Keating Associate Geophysicist Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology University of Hawai'i at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i

The first great scientific expedition launched by America consisted of a squadron of six sailing ships. The squadron circumnavigated the world in a five year long voyage, stopping in Hawai'i en route. The purpose of the expedition was to construct maps for safer maritime activity, display the flag in ports where American naval interests were endangered, and to conduct scientific research and discovery .This expedition was the first to claim a definitive sighting of the Antarctic continent, and a large portion of the continent was later named after the expedition commander. The voyage led to the establishment of the U.S. Hydrographic Office, Smithsonian Institute National Museum, and established the U.S. role in international scientific research. Because of the delays in funding and consequent changes in staffing, the expedition became known in Washington political circles as the "deplorable expedition." President Adams remarked that the only thing he wanted to hear about the expedition was that it had sailed. The leader of the expedition was Naval Lieutenant Charles Wilkes. Prior to the cruise, Wilkes was denied a promotion to captain, placing him in an awkward position throughout the cruise. Nevertheless he served as the commander despite his rank. He was a strict disciplinarian, and as a result he faced court-martial for illegal punishment after the expedition. Jaffe (1976) suggested that Wilkes was the model for Captain Ahab in the book Moby Dick by Melville. Melville and Wilkes grew up in the same neighborhood and they shared many family acquaintances. Melville also knew the expedition geologist James Dana, and many accounts in his book may have resulted from conversations with Dana. Erskine ( 1890) wrote a book about his years at sea and expressed his desire to murder Wilkes during the voyage. Wilkes was court-martialed three times during his career and still became a rear-admiral. This lecture will follow the expedition's route, comparing modern-day images at many stops along the route with images drawn or painted over 150 years ago during the expedition and will explore the achievements of the participants and their legacy.

Fair American
Terry Wallace Author/Historian Member, Kona Historical Society Honaunau, Hawai'i

This slide presentation tells the story of the little schooner Fair American, starting in Macao in 1789, her tragic arrival off the Kohala coast on Hawai'i Island in 1790 and how she was used by Kamehameha, affecting the history of the Sandwich Islands. Also discussed is how Kamehameha utilized Isaac Davis, John Young and Fair American in his campaigns, strategy and tactics in domination of the island group.

Courage and Heroism under Fire
Wendy Coble Graduate Student East Carolina University Greenville, North Carolina

In the summer of 1994, East Carolina University, the University of Hawai'i at Manoa and the National Park Service conducted a field school on a sunken PBY -Catalina flying boat in Kane'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Field work during the summer included historical research and completing a site plan of the wreckage. Since 1994, further .research into war documents, oral histories and secondary sources have provided a wealth of information regarding the significance of the site. It is believed that this plane represents one of three ready status planes destroyed and sunk during the Japanese attack on 0'ahu 7 December 1941. Research has revealed a detailed story of courage under fire and the heroism of United States Naval forces under Japanese attack. This paper will discuss the field work, continuing research and preliminary conclusions of the work on this unique underwater site.

Captain James Cook and His Arrival at Kealakekua 
Terry Wallace

This program is a presentation based on the one now given by the Kona Historical Society. The story is given from four points of view; British, Hawaiian, American Missionary and a modem point of view. The presentation tells how Capt. Cook came to "find" Hawai'i, why he came here and the events leading to his and others' deaths. Also explained is why people believe the way they do about Capt. Cook.

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8th Annual Symposium, February 17-19, 1996
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Steve Russell, Educational Specialist, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Welcome to the Hawaii Maritime Center
MacKinnon Simpson, Hawaii Maritime Center

Hawaiian Fishponds on Molokai: Planning Problems and Potential for Restoration
Luciano Minerbi, Professor, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Hawaii at Manoa

The South Coast of the island of Molokai has a unique opportunity in coastal zone management (CZM): the restoration of almost forty Hawaiian fishponds and fishtraps, marvels of human achievement in the use of ecologically based indigenous knowledge.  While some fishponds and fishtraps endure in good conditions, years of storm damage, siltation and mangrove encroachment have affected others.  Owners' neglect, layers of government regulations, and community disempowerment remain formidable impediments to restoration and reuse.  Differing viewpoints on purpose of historic presevration and modality of restoration, beach access; coastal water quality and wetland protection; navigable rights;a nd public and private use require harmonization.   Native Hawaiian concerns for appropriate cultural and subsistence use must be given precedence over commercial and real estate exploitation to ensure a genuince community-based use of the fishponds.  The Hawaiian groups and the Governor's Task Force on Molokai Fishpond Restoration have taken steps to address and resolve these concerns by: (1) generating recommendations; (2) initiating pilot restoration projects; and (3) promoting the use of a novel integrated permit procedure (Master Conservation District Use Application) by the State Department of Land and Natural Resources.   Proactive entities such as a State Fishpond Restoration Commission and community development corporations (CDC's) must be established to permit and execute restoration projects by mobiliziing public, private,a nd community resources.  Alternatively, some Hawaiians state that the restoration of the ponds can be attained through sovereignty.  In the end, the proper restoration of Molokai fishpond will not move forward unless it includes three major endeavors: (1) 'ohana groups become stewards and caretakers of the fishponds with landowners' consent, ahupua'a by ahupua'a; (2) projects feasibility and economic viability are addressed through co-management approaches; and (3) fishpond restoration, siltation, soil conservation and native plants reforestation are undertaken as single integrated management projects for the island of Molokai.

A Proposal to Chronologically Order Marine Procurement Sites along Oahu's South Shore: Application on the Method Seriation to Hawaiian "Octopus-Lure Weights"
Michael T. Pfeffer, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle

Recent reconnaissance survey has identified patterned deposits of artifacts related to prehistoric Hawaiian marine procurement in bearshore waters along Oahu Island's south shore.  I hypothesize that these artifact clusters correlate strongly with the selective use of Hawaii's nearshore environment during prehistory.   Analysis of artifacts recovered from these clusters will provide a means to independently assess current assumptions regarding the form and patterning of ancient Hawaiian maritime procurement in the nearshore marine environment.  Further, recent developments in the method seriation have provided a means to chronologically order artifacts found at these clusters as well.  Through the application of the method object-scale occurrence seriation to one class of marine procurement artifacts, known colloquially as the "Hawaiian octopus-lure weight," I propose a tentative chronolgical sequence of development for four  discrete artifact clusters located along Oahu's south shore.  From this information, I propose a tentative sequence documenting the inception, duration, and cessation of use for the four different artifact clusters.  As demonstrated from this preliminary analysis, recovery and analysis of additional artifacts may ultimately provide a means to define and chronologically order the sequence of exploitation of both individual fishing sites, and broader nearshore marine ecological zones as well.

The Wreck of America's First Yacht - Cleopatra's Barge (Ha'aheo o Hawai'i): 1995 Survey
Paul F. Johnston, Curator of Maritime History, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution

In 1816, George Crowninshield Jr. of Salem, Massachusetts, commissioned the first oceangoing yacht built in the United States.  Named Cleopatra's Barge and measuring 100 feet in length and 192.4 tons, the hermaphrodite brig cost an estimated $100,000 to construct and fit out.  Crowninshield died in 1817 after one voayge, and in 1820 the Barge was sold to Hawaiian monarch Kamehameha II, who renamed her Ha'aheo o Hawai'i (Pride of Hawaii) and used her as his royal yacht until 1824.  While the king and his wife were in London awaiting an audience with King George IV, his court embarked upon a cruise around the island of Kaua'i.  Ha'aheo struck a reef in Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i, on 5 April 1842, sand, and was declared a total loss.  This paper details results of the 1995 survey for Ha'aheo o Hawai'i, which combined remote sensing and manual ground truthing.

Maritime China: What We Never Saw
Hans van Tilburg, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii

Though China and the United States share centuires of maritime relations across the Pacific Ocean, the differences in language and culture, and sheer geographical distances involved creat obstacles to modern understanding.  Much of China's long seafaring history remains unknown to Westerners.  Far from being a country unconcerned with blue water sailing Chinese maintained one of the largest and most technologically advanced navies the world had ever seen...yet it was "voluntarily" dismantled shortly before thr Portuguese traveled to the East, leaving few clues for present day researchers.  Presented here is a summary of the long period of Chinese maritime expansion, 960-1430 A.D.  Historical records combined with archaeological evidence of trade routes and vessels provide a fascinating look at what was once the largest Asiatic squadron ever assembled.  The junk trade to Southeast Asia (the commercial aspect of expansion) includes the origins of the overseas Chinese diaspora.  The current world of Chinese nautical archaeologists in both Taiwan and the People's Republic of China reflects the importance of this maritime period to the history of the Pacific and the world.

Wet Archaeology in a Monsoon Environment: The Potential for Maritime, Riverine and Wet Site Archaeology in the Kingdom of Cambodia
P. Bion Griffin, Chair, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii
William Chapman, Director, Historic Preservation Program, University of Hawaii

The proposed paper will discuss the potential of the University of Hawaii (UH) and East West Center (EWC) collaborative Cambodian research and training project for the archaeological investigation of a variety of submereged and wet-site locations throughout Cambodia.  The UH and EWC since 1993 have been committeed to a multi-year research and educational program through an agreement with the government of Cambodfia and at the Fine Arts University in Phnom Penh.  The scope of the project has been to assist in the training of a future generation of archaeologists and cultural resource managers.  The aim is to assist this once war-ravaged county and to restore a high level of competency in archaeology following the loss of nearly all of Cambodia's professional scholars during the infamous Pol Pot era.  Another aim is to open up new areas of investigation in a region for many years cut off to outside researchers.   The UH/EWC has spent a first season at an early 6th-century urban site at Angkor Borei in southwestern Cambodia in the Mekong Delta.  The site is in a monsoon climate, in an area bisected by the Mekong River and subject to periodic inundation.   The potential for water-logged sites and artifacts--including vessels--is large, given what is known of the history of the area as a one-time trading center.   Especially enticing are the quay areas of the ancient city which have been identified through preliminary surveys.  In addition to the Angkor Borei site, Cambodia also possesses an extensive coast line with rich potential for wreck sites, ports and other marine-related materials representing several millenia of trade in the region.   The potential significance of these sites will be discussed as will be aspects of the symbolism and significance of "water" in Cambodian sacred sites (such as Angkor) and in everyday life today.

Seabed Treasures: All That Glisters is Not Gold
Michael Cruikshank, Director, Marine Minerals Technology Center, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii

GOLD - of all the four letter words, it is probably the most expressive, and it conjures up all kinds of mysterious and exotic fantasies of exploration, or treasure, of wealth, and of luxury.  Throw in the seabeds and you have the Spanish Main, pirates, scoundrels, and dead men's chests.  It was said some thirty years ago that undersea mining would not really become exciting until they discovered gold.   The first government seabed mining activities of the Marine Minerals Technology Center at Tiburon, California were funded through the Heavy Metals prgram, an effort to resurrect the dying placer gold industry in the United States, and the first major field operation was offshore of the old gold operations at Nome, Alaska.  Some twenty years later, gold was found in deep waters in the mid-Atlantic ridge, and a couple of years later in the tectonic basins of the western Pacific.  Although these discoveries did not spark a gold rush, they demonstrated that the tools and techniques used for prospecting for seabed minerals were very capable of finding the proverbial needles in haystacks beneath the seabeds of deep ocean basins.  It seemed appropriate therefore to direct their use to the search for other treasures, less glistening perhaps, but treasures none-the-less.  Historic vessels, sunken warships, black boxes, spilled cargoes, toxic wastes, cargo doors, UXO, and tablewares, as well as minerals, have all been recovered from the ocean deeps, sometimes through chance discovery, other times from concerted and highly sophisticated application of advanced technoology for seabed exploration.  Facilities at the Marine Minerals Technology Center, the Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, and the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics at the University of Hawaii, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, are fully capable of supporting such activities.  As a center for advanced seabed technology and research, the University of well positioned to contribute to the needs of the Pacific community in multiple use applications of systems originally developed for characterization of marine minerals and their environment.  As a center for marine education and training in the Pacific, the School is well positioned also to contribute to the development of our most valuable treasures, the young people of this community.

Islas de Los Monges: The Sandwich Islands and Charts of the Spanish Navigators (day and evening presentations)
Alan S. Lloyd, P.E., Executive Staff Engineer, Hawaiian Electric Co., Inc., Honolulu

Between 1572 and 1815, several hundred Spanish galleons sailed from Acapulco, Mexico, to Agana, Guam and on the Manila in the Philippines.  These galleons followed an officially established route that passed barely 200 miles south of a latitude from which the world's two highest insular mountain peaks and the three active volcanoes on the Island of Hawaii could be easily observed.  This paper identifies two historically significant globes of the world and twenty-one charts of the Pacific Ocean from the 16th, 17th, and 18th century, illustrating a consistent group of usually three or more islands, with Spanish names, plotted at 19th to 23rd north latitude (the latitude of the Hawaiian Islands) in the Eastern Pacific.  The objective of this paper is to present navigational evidence that supports the premise that several hundred square-rigged Spanish galleons using the rudimentary navigational techniques of the 16th and 17th century could not possibly have avoided having some of their number occasionally stray a few degrees to the north and thereby "discover" and report the existence of a rather spectacular archipelago of "High Islands" lying some 30 to 40 sailing days west of Acapulco.  This paper includes a discussion of charts dating back to 1579, authored by cartographers from many nations as well as other evidence that led the author to conclude that Rear Admiral Jean Francois Galaup de la Perouse was correct when he noted in his journal: "In the charts might be written: Sandwich Islands, surveyed in 1778 by Captain Cook, who named them, but anciently discovered by the Spanish navigators."

Living Legends: Chinese Junks in America (day and evening presentations)
Hans van Tilburg, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii

The theory of Asian vessels making very early contact with the Americas has always held a great fascination for historians and archaeologists alike.  Records alluding to a distant eastern land, and cultural and architectural parallels between ancient civilizations have driven a few daring individuals to attempt experimental voyages in test of this theory.  There are, however, several more tangible examples of transPacific (albeit 18th and 19th century) junks which have successfully made this crossing.  The Keying, Ning Po, Amoy, Mon Lei, and the Free China all represent traditional working vessels built by the maritime Chinese of the coastal provinces.  The remains of some of these historic vessels are still accessible for study.  For the interested researcher a clear distinction must be made between Asian vessels from across the ocean and Asian vessels built in America.  Fishing fleets of familiar Chinese design inaugurated the commerical industry off the California coast in the mid and late 19th century.  Just how "traditional" were/are these Chinese ships on this side of the ocean?  This presentation of on-going research addresses part of the larger story of contact across the Pacific.

Trans-Pacific Voyages 3000BC to 1522AD
Gunnar Thompson, Assistant Professor, Department of Counselor Education, University of Hawaii

The latest research by the Multicultural Discovery Project at the University of Hawaii traces maritime travel, migration, and cultural diffusion across the Pacific.  Ancient Hindu, Japanese, Chinese, Arabic, and Roman maps included isles of the Pacific.  Albertin DeVirga's 1414 world map and Francesco Roselli's 1508 world map verify ancient surveys of the west coast of Peru and Western knowledge of Pacific isles.  A southwestern isle on DeVirga's map is called "Ca-paru" and has the exact coastline of Peru.  Voyages of exploration, trade, and migrations are confirmed by legends, artifacts, and the incredible ethnic mixture across the Pacific and along the oceanic rim.  The ethnic mixture is evident from ancient sculptures and the earliest accounts of ethnographers and travelers who noted peoples of varying ethnic types living on the same isles or in adjacent villages along the American coast.  Ancient plant diffusion westward across the Pacific includes maize, tobacco, and potatoes.   Jaweed Ashraf's review of Hindu plants confirms that Native American maize reached India by the 1st century BC.  Maize sculptures are present in 12th century Hindu temples and in Chinese ceramics.  Voyagers carried cotton, amaranth, bottle gourds, and hogs from Asia to ancient America.  Chinese Taoist travelers brought unique religious symbols including the Yin-Yang and the Omnibis Power Sign to the west coast of Mexico by 500 BC.  The Omnibus Power Sign complex has a degree of morphological complexity and uniformity which precludes the possibility of independent invention, while an exhaustive study of temporal and geographical distributions revealed the time and place of introduction into the New World.  These symbols served as the principle religious motifs of the Mayan religion for over a thousand years --thereby confirming significant trans-Pacific cultural diffusion.  Over the years, the Pacific isles served as conduits for diffusion of plants acorss the ocean as Polynesian voyagers made incremental trips from island to island.

The Fiesta de Las Se�as: Misrule aboard the Manila Galleons
William J. McCarthy, Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of North Carolina-Wilmington

When the Manila galleons sighted the California coast, the occasion was seized for often much-desrved merriment.  The inital sighting of birds and debris signaled that the coast was approaching; thus the journey would likely end in success and the months of agonizing deprivation could soon be tempered.  Merriment included drinking, dancing, breaking open jealously hoarded provisions, and often conducting mock trials of ships' officers and clergy.  I plan to contrast the release offered by the fiesta with the generally prevalent hardships of this most arduous of voyages.  It will provide occasion as well to comment upon the social divisions among crew and passengers.  For instance, in the most stark of contrasts, Filipino crew-members often went without provisions while affluent passengers dined on fresh meat and preserved fruits.  With regard to the "tribunal de las Se�as", or the mock court, itself, I will relate it to the similar practices among European societies of the time.   ON numerous festive occasions the ordinary socio-political society was stood on end for purposes of mockery, but the practice also served as a useful outlet for the otherwise frustrated aggressions of the lower orders.  Inasmuch as the society of an ocean-going ship can be held to represent a microcosm of the larger society of which it is a part, the nature of the fiesta was determined by practices prevalent in the parent European society.

Opinions of Early Explorers about Spanish Contact with the Hawaiian Islands
Richard W. Rogers, Pilialoha Consultant, Haleiwa
Stephen Gould, Curator, Hawaii Maritime Center

When Captain Cook and the other early explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in 1778 and thereafter, some of them saw reason to believe that other Europeans had been there in earlier times.  This presentation will discuss the opinions of those men and explore other avenues of research on this subject.  Navigational charts of the day showed a group of islands that were considered by some to be the same as the Hawaiian Islands.  We will look at some of those charts and hear what the early explorers and historians had to say about the islands depicted in the center of the North Pacific.  Captain Cook, his officers, and some of his crewmen kept journals in which they put down their observations and opinions.  We will read quotes from the Captain himself; his officers King, Burney, Roberts, and Samwell; as well as crew-members such as Ledyard and Harvey concerning their sighting iron in the hands of the Hawaiians, and their own opinions about earlier Spanish contact with them.  Other explorers such as Portlock, Dixon, La Perouse, and Vancouver tried in vain to find the islands depicted on the Spanish charts.  We will review their opinions of those exploration.  La Perouse went so far as to offer an explanation as to whom originally has those islands placed on the charts in the 16th century, thus starting the controversy as to whom really discovered the Hawaiian Islands.  Other early visitors heard legends and tales of shipwrecks and castaways which continue to intrigue us today.  Missionaries, ministers, and kings wrote detailed histories of ancient Hawaii which give us clues as to whom was in power when these visits and calamities occurred.  Other investigators such as Dahlgren, Stokes, and Day looked into this matter and concluded that the Spanish did not know of the Hawaiian Islands.  We will discuss those authors and examine how they came to those conclusions.  A very few pieces of heard evidence remain in storage which may yet unlock secrest as to whom and when these first Europeans arrived here.  We will speak of what those pieces are, where they are kept, and what might be done to see if they might reveal some clues as to their origin.

And Then There Were Three: An Archaeological Survey, Historic Documentation, and Identification of a Nakajima C6N1 Saiun (Myrt)
Clark Graham, President, Society for Historic Investigation Preservation (SHIP), Chuuk, FSM

The maritime archaeology project conducted in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia in the spring of 1995 is truly unique and exciting.  The report, "And Then There Were Three: An Archaeological Survey, Historic Documentation, and Identification of a Nakajima C6N1 Saium (Myrt)," is unique in several ways: 1) The project was conducted by eight students from Xavier High School under the supervision of Clark Graham of SHIP.  If not the first, it is certainly one of only a few maritime archaeology projects conducted by high school students; 2) Only four hundred and sixty-three (463) Myrt aircraft were built.  Today only three (3) remain.  The identification and study of this aircraft are major contributions to maritime archaeology; 3) According to our information, this is only the third maritime archaeology project conducted in the federated States of Micronesia; 4) Plans are currently underway for a second project in 1996, and, if successful, maritime archaeology will become a permanent part of the senior Marine Honors Program at Xavier High School.//This maritime archaeology presentation will discuss the Myrt aircraft and Moen Airfield No. 2, the benefits of this program to Chuuk and Micronesia, SHIP's plans for continuing maritime archaeology work in Chuuk, and the ned for such continued studies.

Video: The Curse of the Somers, Billy Budd's Ghost Ship
George Belcher, Executive Producer, Somers Documentary Film Project, San Francisco

This film is a gripping sea saga of the 19th century dramatized by George and Joel Belcher's 20th century expedition to find the shipwreck of the U.S. Brig Somers.   The U.S. Brig Somers was the scene in 1842 of what may have been the only mutiny in U.S. naval history - or was it murder?  Three men were hanged from the Somers' yardarm, one the 18 year old son of the U.S. Secretary of War.  The hangings aboard the Somers gave her a bad name.  She was acursed ship, and no one wanted to serve aboard her.  Sailors claimed that the hanged men haunted the Somers.   At night, there were sightings of ghostly figures, and voices were heard crying out above the yardarm.  Was the 18 year old mishipman Philip Spencer the inspirations for Herman Melville's Billy Budd?  Young Spencer is still remembered as the martyred hero of Chi Psi, the national collegiate fraternity he helped found in 1841.   The U.S. Brig Somers heeled over in a sudden gale in 1846 off Veracruz, Mexico during the opening months of the Mexican War.  Explore the Somers shipwrecl with underwater archaeologists.

Field Trip: Coral Reef Sinkholes on the Ewa Plain, Oahu
Field Trip: Evolution of Torpedos: USS Bowfin Submarine Museum and Park

7th Annual Symposium, February 18-20, 1995
ABSTRACTS (In order of presentation)

Steve Russell, Educational Specialist, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Welcome to the Hawaii Maritime Center
MacKinnon Simpson, Hawaii Maritime Center

University of Hawaii Maritime Archaeology Field School 1994: A Survey of a Navy Patrol Bomber in Kane'ohe Bay and Monitoring of the Battleship Arizona
Jim Adams, Cultural Resource Manager, USS Arizona Memorial, National Park Service, Honolulu

The 1994 maritime archaeology field school brought together the effgorts of the University of Hawaii Marine Option Program, East Carolina University's Program in Maritime History and Nautical Archaeology, and the National Park Service, in order to provide an intense six-week graduate course that provided the basics of maritime history, from the earliest canoes to modern dreadnoughts; a review of archaeological theory as it applies to nautical and submereged sites; and "heated" discussions on the merits of "treasure hunting" versus "wreck diving" versus "salvage diving" versus "archaeological study." Students applied their classroom knowledge when they conducted a formal survey of a submerged airplane wreck believed to be a casualty of the December 7th, 1941 attack on Oahu.  Monitoring of the biofouling growth on the hull of the USS Arizona shipwreck finished the field portion of the course.  Archival research, submission of a final report, and formal presentations completed the field school.

Inventory of Traditional Hawaiian Fishponds at Pearl Harbor
Tom Dye, Archaeology, State Historic Preservation Division, Honolulu

Recent scientific advance have provided pre-historians with the means to investigate the invention, construction, and use of fishponds in Hawaii.  Examples drawn from recent archaeological investigations of fishponds on Oahu are used to illustrate the fishponds at Pearl Harbor, a project funded by the Department of Defense Legacy Program.

The History and Archaeology of the First American Yacht, Ha'aheo o Hawai'i (ex-Cleopatra's Barge)
Paul F. Johnston, Curator of Maritime History, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution

What do the President of the United States, Captain Cook's entrails, a pair of Napoleon's boots, seven lines of Shakespeare, 8,000 pickles, and the first elephant in America have in common?  They are all part of one of the most unusual and fascinating stoires in American's maritime heritage: the saga of Cleopatra's Barge, the nation's first ocean-going yacht.  Built in 1816 at Salem, Massachusetts for George Crowninshield Jr., the Barge cost an estimated $100,000 to construct.   In March 1817, Crowninshield embarked upon his yacht for a six-month "voyage of pleasure" to the Mediterranean, visiting 16 ports and hosting up to 20,000 visitors per day.  He died soon after returning to Salem, and the ship was acquired by the Boston China traders Bryant & Sturgis.  In 1820 they sold the famous brig to the king of Hawaii in exchange for sandalwood, a commodity hightly prized by Chinese artisans.  Kamehameha II (Liholiho) renamed his royal yacht Ha'aheo o Hawai'i (Pride of Hawaii) and enjoyed her for three years.  In late 1823, Liholiho visited London to meet King George IV; however, while awaiting an audience, he and his wife caught the measles and died.  Meanwhile, back in Hawaii his court had taken Ha'aheo for a cruise around the island of Kauai.  On 5 April 1824, the brig went aground on a reef in Hanalei Bay; despite attempts to haul her over the sandbar into deeper water, Ha'aheo could not be salvaged.  There were no injuries or casualties associated with the loss.  In 1995, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History proposes to conduct a scientific archaeological survey for the wreck of Ha'aheo o Hawai'i to study the extent and condition of the site.

The Final Six Seconds of the USS Arizona
John F. De Virgilio, Instructor/Counselor, Community Colleges, University of Hawaii, Honolulu

This presentation will provide the public with a new and more complete interpretation about the destruction of the USS Arizona.  Like the battleship Maine, the Arizona's final moments have been shrouded in mystery.  This new interpretation will hopefully replace the World War II, U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships' explanations about the USS Arizona's fatal magazine explosion on December 7, 1941.  The presentation will cover four related parts.  Parts one and two will deconstruct two hypothetical U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships' explanations of the destruction of the USS Arizona.  Today, there is enough evidence to refute both U.S. Navy explanations.  Part three will concentrate on Japanese air tactis, bomb plots, and ordnance used on the American battleship force at Pearl Harbor.  This aspect of the presentation will help the audience to understand the events that occurred during the first wave of the Japanese attack and the sinking of the Arizona.   Various American and Japanese accounts will bring forward a new interpretation on the Arizona disaster.  Lastly, by making use of contemporary underwater documentation and dive surveys by the National Park Service, a number of new revelations have come to light.  Underwater illustrations, left uninterpreted in the 1980's, have in fact provided historic fingerprints into the past and the Arizona's final demise.

The Historian and Underwater Archaeology
William Still Jr., Adjunct Researcher, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

This paper will emphasize the contributions that a professional historian can make to underwater archaeological projects, particularly those that are historical rather than pre-historical.  These contributions include knowledge of where to locate information, both published and unpublished, concerning a project site; background research on the site; identification of artifacts; and writing the historical section of the final report.  Secondly, the paper will point out and give examples of important historical information that can be derived from underwater archaeological projects.

Hawaii and the Chinese Desire for Sandalwood: Traditions of Pacific Trade
Hans van Tilburg, Historical Archaeologist, Graduate, Program in Maritime History and Nautical Archaeology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina

The almost universal interpretation of the sandalwood trade in the Pacific places its origins with the intervention of New England merchants in the commerce of Hawaii in the early part of the nineteenth century.  Ships from America and other western nations, eager to find a commodity acceptable to the Chinese merchants in Canton (Guangzhou), rapidly depleted Hawaiian forests of this aromatic wood, at the same time causing dramatic change in labor relationships for many of the native workers.   "Sandalwood Mountain," as the islands were known in China, did indeed satisfy a portion of China's need for a brief period.  The sandalwood trade, however, represents a much larger phenomenon of commodity exchange, involving many areas of the Pacific and Southeast Asia and stretching over a period of centuries.  For a long time, sandalwood along with other precious cargo flowed across the Indian Ocean to Southeast Asian entrepots, also sources for the scented woods.  Other islands were likewise known by their commerical importance.  The Chinese called Sumba in Indonesia "Sandalwood Island."  Later regions further east such as Fiji, the Marquesas Islands, and southwest Melanesia were also stripped of sandalwood.  Now, following the beginnings of nautical archaeological investigations of Asian trade ships, the exchange of many commodities can better be understood as established traditions of maritime trade.  Western merchants, rather than originating a new trade in a specific commodity, were really participating in a traditional pattern in order to appease merchants in China.  The harsh measures used by traders in Hawaii to procure the wood only added to the list of economic, physical, and cultural stresses felt by the post-contact society.  Ironically, the cause of much of the sandalwood trade (China's unwillingness to accept western goods) only ended after even harsher measures known as the Opium Wars of 1839-1842.

Shipboard Relations Between Pacific Island Women and Euroamerican Men, 1767-1887
David A. Chappell, Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Hawaii at Manoa

In histories of early contact between foreign ships and Pacific Islandersm indigenous women have usually been assigned the limited role of sexual traders.   Their gender certainly gained them access to Euroamerican vessels and shaped their opportunities, but on closer examination it becomes clear that they were in the front line of the larger process of cross-cultural communication.  Despie being exploied by both white sailors and native chiefs, Islander women often extracted their own measures of self-worth and material profit from their relationships with outsiders.  Some mediated in trading or religious conversion, other even voyaged on foreign ships of their own free will and made contributions as informants for their hosts.  Although they might pay a price in veneral disease, and consequent infertility, they could form personal bonds with foreign seamen that helped to bridge the cultural gap between their homw societies and the wider world that would change their lives forever.

History's Mystery: King Kamehameha II's Yacht Ha'aheo o Hawai'i (ex-Cleaopatra's Barge) [Evening Lecture]
Paul F. Johnston, Curator of Maritime History, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution

The Underwater Excavation of the Spanish Galleon Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Zaragoza en Santiago
David Tibbets, Graduate Student, Department of Anthropology, University of Guam

The Spanish galleon Nuestra Senora del Pilar de Zaragoza ran aground on the fringing reef surrounding Cocos Island off the southern tip of Guam on June 2, 1690.  The Pilar had been carrying Franciscan missionaries, soldiers, and convicts, along with fifty tons of silver coins.  She was enroute to Manile to trade the silver for silks, porcelain, and spices, which were to then be carried back to Acapulco.  Three hundred people were rescued and no lives were lost.  Some of the cargo was saved, but the Pilar was sitting in water too deep for anything below the top deck to be salvaged.  Three hundred years later an underwater excavation of the galleon, by the Pilar Project, Inc., has yield artifacts such as ballast stones, pottery shards, musket balls, cannon balls, silver coins, and a medallion which are being chemically treated at the University of Guam's archaeology lab.   The excavation project will begin its fifth season in March of 1995.  The current solution hollow which is being excavated is approximately 50m by 100m in total area, at a water depth of 21m-30m.  While on SCUBA, a dive team uses a Venturi dredge to remove silt and rubble from the excavation unit..  As artifacts are uncovered, measurements and compass bearings are taken in relations to several predetermined datum, which have been calculated from a GPS.  This writer has been affiliated with the Pilar Project for nearly two years while studying archaeology at the University of Guam.

At the Bleeding Edge: The Underwater Archaeology Permit Process in Hawaii (no abstract)
Paul F. Johnston

Kamehameha III, Baltimore Clipper (no abstract)
Jane Silverman, Historian, Honolulu

Yard Tug Hoga: A History and a Mission of Preservation (no abstract)
Daniel Martinez, Historian, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, National Park Service, Honolulu

The Sinking of the U.S.S. Oklahoma, U.S.S. West Virginia, U.S.S. California, and the U.S.S. Nevada at Pearl Harbor
John F. De Virgilio, Instructor/Counselor, Community Colleges, University of Hawaii

This presentation will provide a new and more comprehensive interpretation on the destruction of the U.S. Navy's battleship force at Pearl Harbor.  This reassessment will integrate Japanese historical information and documents by the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ships' Reports to form a clearer picture of the damage to the American battleship force on December 7, 1941.  Four related areas will be covered in this presentation: Reveiw of Japanese heavy ordnance, their construction, and the dangers they pose today to underwater researchers; the Japanese air tactics used over Pearl Harbor; the assessment of the damage sustained by the American battleships; and the hidden underwater artifacts yet to be discovered in Pearl Harbor.

Mr. Bligh's Bad Discipline
Christopher A. Russo, Graduate Student, Department of History, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Common discourse as to the causes of the Bounty's mutiny blames the excessive discipline of the ship's captain, Lieutenant Bligh.  I contend that the mutiny was due to a lack of discipline on the commander's part.  Bligh either refused to discipline himself or his crew, or was inconsistent in his application of it, and this fault resulted in the mutiny.  Other causes, such as class, are explored...and dismissed.  In short, it was a lack of discipline that caused the mutiny on the Bounty.

Manila Galleons, the First Trans-Pacific Shipping Line: The Trade, the Ships and the People
Jinky Smalley, Graduate Student, Program in Maritime History and Nautical Archaeology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC

We are so used to telling colonial history from the perspective of the Europeans that much of the story is ignored.  This certainly has been true for the Spanish Philippines, but happily, a closer reading of the historical record and incorporation of archaeological data produce a fuller picture, one of vital interaction.   This paper will describe the part played by all the groups involved; the Spanish; the residents of New Spain, Spanish, Mestizo and native; the Filipinos; the Chinese and other; in establishing and maintaining the galleon trade that for 250 years joined Manila and Acapulco.  In conclusion, I will list the approximately 30 galleons that were lost during those years and suggest how data from excavating them may shed further light on our understanding on the period.

Field Trip: Hawaiian Canoe Exhibit, Bishop Museum
Field Trip: Polynesian Ocean Artifacts, Bishop Museum
Field Trip: Nu-upia Ponds

6th Annual Symposium, March 21-23, 1994
PRESENTATIONS (no abstracts)

Steve Russell, Educational Specialist, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Welcome to the Hawaii Maritime Center
MacKinnon Simpson, Hawaii Maritime Center

Shipwrecks, Torpedos and Airplanes: The Conservation of Some Really Large Artifacts at the USS Arizona Memorial
Jim Adams, Cultural Resource Manager, USS Arionza Memorial, National Park Service, Honolulu

MAST: Maritime Archaeological Survey Techniques 1993 Joint Summer Field School
Bradley Rodgers, Archaeologist/Conservator, Program in Maritime History and Nautical Archaeology, East Carolina University

Kauai's Wrecks
Linda Bail, Owner, Bubbles Below Scuba Charters, Kapaa

Traditional South Pacific Sailing Craft
Robert Halsband, Island Post Productions, Honolulu

So You Want to be in Movies? A Toiler's Tale
Robert Halsband

The University of Hawaii's Proposed Graduate Maritime Archaeology and History Certificate Program
William Still Jr., Director, Program in Maritime History and Nautical Archaeology, East Carolina University

An Examination of Localized Marine Fishing Sites on the South Shore of Oahu Island
Michael Pfeffer, Graduate Student, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Hidden Images: Rare and Forgotten Views of the Pearl Harbor Attack
Daniel Martinez, Park Historian, USS Arizona Memorial, National Park Service

Preserving Underwater Cultural Artifacts Utilizing the National Register of Historic Places
William Murtagh, Director, Historic Preservation Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

The Silent Service Speaks: Oral Histories of the USS Bowfin Crew
Aldona Sendzikas, Museum Curator, USS Bowfin Submarine Museum and Park, Honolulu

The Mystery of the Dorothea: A Deadly Lesson in Composite Construction
Bradley Rodgers

14th Naval District Photo Collection: A Photo Archival Project that Documents Naval and Maritime History in Hawaii from the Days of the Monarchy to the Beginning of World War II
Jim Adams and John Kroll, USS Arizona Memorial, National Park Service

A Traditional Hawaiian Fishing Site Offshore Makena, Maui
Theresa Donham, Archaeologist (Maui), State Historic Preservation Division, Wailuku

20th Century Fishing [Evening Lecture]
Louis Agard, Instructor, Continuing Education Program, Kamehameha School

Underwater Archaeology and the American Civil War [Evening Lecture]
William Still Jr.

Field Trip: Guided Tour of the USS Bowfin Submarine Park and Museum
Field Trip: Behind the Scenes: Photo Archives and Artifact Conservation at the USS Arizona Memorial

5th Annual Symposium, March 22-24, 1993
PRESENTATIONS (no abstracts)

Steve Russell, Educational Specialist, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Opening Remarks
MacKinnon Simpson, Hawaii Maritime Center

Matson Navigation Company: Over 110 Years of Service in the Pacific
Alexander Bolton, Vice President, Hawaii, Matson Navigation Company, Honolulu

Landings and Shipwrecks: Mahukona and the Steamer Kauai
Pete Hendricks, Division of Aquatic Resources, Hilo

Submerged Cultural Resources in Hawaii and the Western Pacific
Dan Lenihan, Chief, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit, National Park Service, Santa Fe, NM

Comparisons of Line Fishing Cultures in Oceania
Yosihiko Sinoto, Ph.D., Senior Anthropologist and Kenneth Emory Distinguished Chair in Anthropology, Bishop Museum

Nautical Archaeology: Getting Students into the Field
Michael Halpern, Participating Archaeologist, Institute of Nautical Archaeology, Texas A&M University

Submerged Stone Platforms: A Creation of Nature of Cultural Features?
Laura Carter Schuster, Archaeologist, Kaloko-Honokohau National Historic Park, National Park Service, Kailua-Kona

Submerged Sites of Maui: Inventory Update and Preliminary Findings
Theresa Donham, Archaeologist, Maui Island, State Historic Preservation Division Wailuku

The C.S.S. Alabama, A Civil War Raider Ship Sunk off the French Coast, Its History and Rediscovery
William Still, Ph.D., Director, Program in Maritime History and Nautical Archaeology, East Carolina University, NC

Traditional Fishing in Micronesia with Special Reference to Women's Fishing
Kim Des Rochers, Project Assistant, Sea Grant Extension Service, Pacific Program; University of Hawaii Sea Grant Program

Panel Discussion: Search for Japanese Midget Submarines
Paul Fodor, Chief Ranger, Arizona Memorial, National Park Service, Honolulu
John Wiltshire, Ph.D. and Terry Kerby, Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Dan Lenihan, National Park Service, Santa Fe, NM

Geology and Archaeology of Sediments at Coastal Fishponds in He'eia and Huilua, Oahu
Floyd McCoy, Ph.D., Instructor and Faculty MOP Co-Coordinator, Windward Community College, Kaneohe

Methods and Techniques for Underwater Sites Surveys and Assessment
Dan Lenihan

Current Archaeological Investigations of the Steamer Maple Leaf
Bradley Rodgers, Archaeologist/Conservator, Program in Maritime History and Nautical Archaeology, East Carolina University

The Maritime Archaeology Program at the Australian Maritime Museum
Mark Staniforth, Curator of Maritime Archaeology, Australian Maritime Museum, Sydney

Buried Treasures of Ancient Polynesian Voyagers [Hawaii Maritime Center Living Waterfront Lecture Series]
Yosihiko Sinoto, Ph.D.

Something Rich and Strange: Underwater Archaeological Heritage in the Pacific [Evening Lecture]
Dan Lenihan

Field Trip: Arizona Memorial
Field Trip: History Geology and Archaeology of Huilua Fishpond, Kahana Valley

4th Annual Symposium, March 23-25, 1992
PRESENTATIONS (no abstracts)

Steve Russell, Coordinator, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Opening Remarks
MacKinnon Simpson, Historical Author, Hawaii Maritime Center

Restoration/Revitalization of Hawaiian Fishponds
Carol Wyban, Consultant and Resource Planner

150 Years of Waterfront Reporting in Honolulu
Bob Krauss, Columnist/Writer, Honolulu Advertiser

Discovery of the "Dauntless": A US Navy Carrier Plane/Scout Dive Bomber
Terry Kirby, Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Hawaiian Islands: From Whaler's Capitol to Whalewatching Capitol
MacKinnon Simpson, Hawaii Maritime Center
Susan Reeve, Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Tracing Carbon-14 in the Marine Environment and Archaeological Applications
Erik Pearthree, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Managing Pandora's Box
Peter Gesner, Maritime Archaeologist, Queensland Museum, Australia

Inter-island Shipping and the Wreck of the Maui
Heidi Tobias-Smith, Department of History, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Whalemen, Sick and Destitute in Lahaina
Jane Silverman, Historian

Archaeological Conservation of Artifacts from an 18th Centiry Galleon, the Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion
Myrna Clamor, Museum Researcher/Conservator, National Museum, Philippines

Wrecks 'A La Mode,' Ingredients for a Palatable Public Education Program in Maritime Archaeology
Peter Gesner

The Gubenga: Reviving Traditional Fishing Methods in Nukoro Atoll, Federated States of Micronesia
Alice Ziegler, Marine Option Program, Windward Community College

The 'aua i'a (Fish Traps) of Huahine Island, Society Islands
Paul Atallah, Department of Anthropology and Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Whaling Wives in the Pacific
Constance Fournier, Department of American Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Pandora in Perspective
Peter Gesner, Maritime Archaeologist, Queensland Museum, Australia

Hands-on Demonstration: Conservation and Restoration of Archaeological Artifacts from Marine Environments
Myrna Clamor

Field Trip: Archaeology of Heeia Fishponds
Randy Harr, Marine Educator, Heeia State Park, Kaneohe

3rd Annual Symposium, March 25-27, 1991
PRESENTATIONS (no abstracts)

Steve Russell, Coordinator, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Opening Remarks
Mac Simpson, Maritime Historian, Hawaii Maritime Center

Resource Management Plan for the USS Arizona
Kendell Thompson, Resource Management Specialist, National Park Service, Honolulu

Impact of Geological Change on Hawaiian Archaeological Sites
Gary Somers, Archeologist, National Park Service, Honolulu

Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory's Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)
Kevin Kelly, ROV Manager, Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Federal and State Legislation: Protecting Submerged Cultural Resources
James Delgado, Martiime Historian and Head, National Maritime Initiative, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

The Liminal Deck: Pacific Islanders Aboard Euro-american Ships
David Chappell, Department of History, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Panel Discussion: Submerged Cultural Resource Legislation in Hawaii
Moderator: Heidi Tobias-Smith

Wonders of the Deep: Pacific Maritime History Sources
Karen Peacock, Pacific Curator, Hamilton Library, University of Hawaii at Manoa

The Principles of Marine Artifact Conservation
Jim Adams, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Hawaii's "Aku Boats"
Bob Chenoweth, Museum Curator, USS Arizona Memorial, National Park Service, Honolulu

Field Trip: The Last Remaining Hawaii Sampans

Archaeology of the Atomic Bomb: The Shipwrecks of Bikini Atoll
James Delgado

King Kamehameha's Yacht, Cleopatra's Barge
Heidi Tobias-Smith, Department of History, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Assessment of Shipwrecks at Bikini Atoll
James Delgado

Conservation of Coastal Cultural Resources and Shipwrecks on Easter Island
Sergio Rapu, Consultant, Polynesian Cultural Center, Advisory Committee, Institute of Polynesian Studies, Brigham Young University, Hawaii

2nd Annual Symposium, March 26-28, 1990
PRESENTATIONS (no abstracts)

Steve Russell, Coordinator, Marine Option Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Opening Remarks
Evarts Fox, Director, Hawaii Maritime Center

Cultural Resources of Pearl Harbor
Gary Warshefski, Chief Park Ranger, USS Arizona Memorial, National Park Service, Honolulu

Hawaiians and the Ocean
Tommy Holmes, Executive Director, Hawaii Maritime Center

Introduction to Archaeology of the Nuestra Senora de la Pilar (1690 Manila galleon shipwreck in Guam)
R. Duncan Mathewson III, Marine Resources Development Foundation, Key Largo, Florida

The Empire and Hawaii's Age of Coal
Pete Hendricks, Division of Aquatic Resources, Hilo

Use of Side-scan Sonar in Marine Explorations
Alexander Shor, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa

A Perspective of Shipwreck Diving
Allen Hoof, Department of Geography, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Old Whaling Days in Hawaii
Mac Simpson, Maritime Historian, Hawaii Maritime Center

Cultivation in Hawaii, Mauka-Makai
Marion Kelly, Associate Professor, Ethnic Studies Program, University of Hawaii at Manoa

A Basic Methodology for Nearshore Bathymetric Mapping
Allen Hoof

History and Restoration of the Falls of Clyde
Dorian Travers, Ship's Curator, Hawaii Maritime Center

Field Trip: Guided tour of the Falls of Clyde

An Update on the Abandoned Shipwreck Act [of 1987]
William Lee, Director, Los Angeles Maritime Museum

Underwater Archaeological Methodology for Shipwreck Inventories
R. Duncan Mathewson III

The State of Marine Archaeology in California
William Lee

Field Trip: Heeia State Park Fishponds

Documentation of Shipwrecks in the Channel Islands National Park [Evening Lecture]
William Lee

1st Annual Symposium, March 27-30, 1989
PRESENTATIONS (no abstracts)

Sherwood Maynard, Ph.D., Director, Marine Option Program

Opening Remarks
Tommy Holmes, Director, Hawaii Maritime Center
Ben Finney, Ph.D., Chair, Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Introduction to Historic Shipwreck Archaeology
R. Duncan Mathewson, III, Adjunct Professor, Marine Archaeology, Florida Keys Community College

Post Contact Marine Archaeology and the Whaling Era Survey of Maui County Waters
Walt Fredericksen, Instructor, Anthropology, Maui Community College

Shipwrecks as Time Capsules
R. Duncan Mathewson III

Hawaii's Maritime History
Tommy Holmes

Field Trip: Guided tour of Hawaii Maritime Center

Experimental Voyage into Polynesia's Past
Ben Finney, Ph.D.

Open Ocean Navigation without Instruments
Nainoa Thompson, Navigator, Hokule'a

Field Trip: Guided tour of the Hokule'a

Findings from the Sea: Hawaii and Polynesia
Yosihiko Sinoto, Ph.D., Department of Anthropology, Bishop Museum

Underwater Signposts
R. Duncan Mathewson III

Introduction to Artifact Conservation
Jim Sinclair, Marine Archaeologist, Florida Keys Community College

Experimental Marine Archaeology: Reconstructing Pre-Historic Fishing Strategies at Kahaluu
Craig Severance, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Hilo

Kayaking to Remote Archaeological Sites on Hawaii
Audrey Sutherland, Kayaking Instructor, University of Hawaii at Manoa

USS Arizona and Pearl Harbor as a Cultural Resource
Gary Warshefski, Chief Park Ranger, USS Arizona Memorial National Park Service

Field Trip: Guided tour of USS Arizona and USS Bowfin

Is the Most Ancient Evidence of Hawaiian and Polynesian Pre-history Underwater? [Evening Lecture]
Terry Hunt, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Neo-artifacts or "Junk," in Deep Waters off Hawaii
Alex Malahoff, Ph.D. Director, Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, University of Hawaii at Manoa

High Resolution Seafloor Mapping
Debbie Peat, Technician, Seafloor Surveys International

Search Patterns, Dry Mapping, and Metal Detection
R. Duncan Mathewson III

Compass, Grids, Mapping, and Plotting
R. Duncan Mathewson III

Archaeology of Hawaiian Fishponds
William Kikuchi, Ph.D., Instructor, Anthropology, Kauai Community College

Recreational Use of Shipwrecks (Including Wrecks of Truk Lagoon and Palau)
Ann Fielding, Marine Educator

Treasures of the Atocha [Evening Lecture]
R. Duncan Mathewson III

THE FIRST SYMPOSIUM WAS CO-SPONSORED BY: Marine Option Program, UH; Department of Anthropology, UH Manoa; Hawaii Maritime Center; UH Sea Grant College Program FUNDING: UH Foundation; UH Sea Grant College Program; UH Marine Option Program

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